
The Industrial Electrician program covers the common skills and knowledge sets applicable to all industries that must be mastered for successful job performance in operations and maintenance as well as all the electrical systems vital to be able to work safely and efficiently in any industrial setting. The Basics part of the program focuses on entrylevel skills and knowledge, presented within an industrial context, necessary to achieve the requisite competency for further specialization. The Electrical Systems part of the program familiarizes learners with important aspects of modern electrical control and distribution.
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Overview of Industrial Systems
 Overview of Industrial Facility Systems

This module provides an overview of industrialscale systems, using comparisons to typical residential systems that are used in everyday life, as well as industrial standards and units of measure. These systems are used to provide examples and practical applications of the content presented in each subsequent subject area.
Safety
 Industrial Facility Safety

This module provides an overview of common industrial facility hazards and protective systems. Specific hazards covered include auditory hazards, highpressure steam hazards, travelling crane collision hazards, chemical hazards, tool hazards, and hazards related to working in confined spaces. This module also discusses current and voltage dangers, explaining high and lowvoltage hazards, dry and wet conditions, the effects of current on the human body, and the areas of a facility where these hazards may be encountered. Finally, this module describes systems designed to protect both personnel and equipment.
 Fire Safety

This module introduces key elements related to fire safety. Topics covered include the properties of fires and their underlying causes, including the combustion triangle, common fire hazards, and types of fires common in an industrial environment. Additionally, the module provides an overview of the ways in which fires are extinguished, as well as the key elements of fire safety.
 Hazardous Communications

This module provides an overview of hazardous communication standards. The standards require chemical manufacturers and employers to communicate information to workers about the hazards of workplace chemicals or products. Topics covered include the proper labeling of hazards, the NFPA Diamond, material safety data sheets, and proper implementation of hazardous communication programs.
 Lockout Tagout

This module provides an overview of an OSHA compliant lockout/tagout program, including how to recognize the various locks and tags that may be used. In addition, the module introduces the responsibilities of the authorized team member in regards to a lockout/tagout program to prevent injuries to personnel during the servicing and maintenance of equipment from sources of stored energy.
 Electrical Safety

This module provides an overview of the knowledge necessary to protect personnel and equipment from electrical hazards. Topics covered include the effects of current on the human body and emergency actions that should be taken in the event of an electrical shock. This module also explains the importance of electrical safeguarding, including the use of personal protective equipment and how to ensure that electrical equipment is deenergized.
 Industrial Signage

This module provides an overview of the common signage found in an industrial facility. Topics covered include how to interpret common signs in an industrial facility, the color code for labels used to identify hazards, and the OSHA color code for floor markings.
 Personal Protective Equipment

This module discusses the need for personal protective equipment (PPE) to reduce employee exposure to hazards. Topics covered include personal responsibilities regarding PPE, PPE that is commonly associated with industrial sites, and the proper care, use, and inspection of PPE. Finally, this module will explain the effects of using defective or incorrect PPE, including shock hazards, hardhat scenarios, and the risks of poorly rigged equipment falling on workers.
 First Aid I

This module provides guidance for effective responses and treatment related to external bleeding, burns, and nervous system injuries. Topics covered include OSHA compliant first aid kits and how an injured person should be evaluated. In addition, this module provides an overview of how to control external bleeding, the treatment of minor burns, and how to care for head, neck, and spinal injuries.
 First Aid II

This module provides an overview of basic first aid care. Topics covered include actions to take when poisoning is suspected or someone is choking. The module also explains how to perform CPR and the procedures for operating an AED device. Finally, this module describes how to identify the symptoms of a stroke.
 Benzene Awareness

This course will cover the awareness training of benzene and will answer questions such as: What is benzene? What are the health risks? Who is at risk for exposure? This course will also discuss the OSHA regulatory limits, personal protective equipment, and emergency procedures associated with benzene.
Mathematics
 Whole Numbers

This module provides an overview of mathematical functions using whole numbers. The topics in this module define whole numbers, natural numbers, integers, rational numbers, and real numbers, as well as explain how they are used in an industrial setting. In addition, this module describes mathematical operations using whole numbers, including addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
 Fractions

This module provides an overview of mathematical functions using fractions. The topics in this module define fractions and explain how they are used in an industrial setting. This module also explains the individual terms that make up a fraction and how to reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. In addition, this module describes how to perform mathematical operations using fractions, including addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
 Decimals and Percentages

This module provides an overview of mathematical functions using decimals and percentages, including the definition of decimals and percentages and an explanation of how they are used in an industrial setting. This module also explains how to convert fractions to decimals and decimals to fractions.
 Exponents and Scientific Notation

This module introduces mathematical functions using exponents and scientific notation, including a discussion of exponents, factors, radicals, and square roots. This module also explains how to identify numbers written in scientific notation. In addition, the module describes how to perform mathematical operations using exponential numbers, including addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
 Fundamentals of Algebra I

The Algebra I module introduces the basic functions of algebra in an industrial setting. Topics covered in this module include basic algebraic terms, including constants, variables, coefficients, and expressions, as well as how to perform mathematical operations using algebraic expressions, including addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
 Fundamentals of Algebra II

This module builds upon Algebra I and explains algebraic equations and how they may be applied in an industrial setting. Topics covered in the Algebra II module include an overview of the four axioms used for solving algebraic expressions and the methods by which the axioms are used. In addition, this module explains how to solve an algebraic equation with unknown quantities and the relationship between ratios and proportions.
 Fundamentals of Geometry I

This module provides an introduction to basic geometry and its uses in the maintenance field. The topics included in this module include the types of angles and their measurements, common terms in plane geometry, and formulas for calculating the perimeter area of triangles, squares, and rectangles.
 Fundamentals of Geometry II

This module builds on Fundamentals of Geometry I to provide the knowledge and mathematical tools to understand circles and other geometric figures. Topics covered in this module include the common parts of a circle and how to calculate the circumference, as well as the formulas for calculating the surface area and volume of threedimensional shapes.
 Fundamentals of Trigonometry

This module explains the fundamental principles of trigonometry and its uses in the maintenance field. The module provides an overview of the Pythagorean Theorem, the sine, cosine, and tangent functions, and trigonometric identities.
 Scientific Calculator Use

This module introduces the basic functions of a scientific calculator. The topics in the module include how to perform basic mathematical operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, as well as order of operations. The Scientific Calculator Use module also explains how to calculate percentages and square roots and how to enter numbers in scientific notations. In addition, this module describes how to use the trigonometric function of a scientific calculator.
 Fundamentals of Statistics I

This module provides an overview of statistics, which is the study of the collection, organization, and interpretation of data. The topics covered in this module include how to read tables and graphs, the difference between mean, median, and mode, and the normal distribution curve.
 Fundamentals of Statistics II

This module expands on Fundamentals of Statistics I to provide the tools necessary to understand more complex statistical operations and functions. The module provides an overview of standard deviation, how to analyze a distribution curve, the rules of probability, and industrial applications of statistical analysis.
 Introduction to Calculus

Calculus has widespread applications in science, engineering, and economics and can solve many problems for which algebra alone is insufficient. This module introduces the industrial uses of calculus, such as calculating production rate and rate of delivery, and covers topics including derivatives and integrals.
Tools
 Hand Tools I

The Hand Tools I module introduces some of the basic concepts related to hand tools and hand tool safety. This module provides an overview of the importance of hand tool safety and the basic functions and types of hammers, punches, prying tools, screwdrivers, and wrenches.
 Hand Tools II

Building on the Hand Tools I module, this module introduces the basic functions and types of additional hand tools. Topics covered include cutting tools, such as crosscut and rip saws, knives, cutting blades, files, and chisels, gripping and holding tools, such as pliers and clamps, and measuring tools.
 Power Tools

This module introduces the basic concepts related to power tools and power tool safety procedures and precautions, including the necessary knowledge to select the proper power tool for a given task and how to care for power tools and equipment.
Maintenance
 Preventive Maintenance

This module discusses the importance of preventive maintenance and how it aids in prolonging the life and increasing the reliability of equipment, instrumentation, and general facilities. This module provides an overview of the advantages and benefits of preventive maintenance, the difference between preventive and corrective maintenance, and computer maintenance management systems (CMMS).
 Predictive Maintenance

This module discusses the importance and implementation of a predictive maintenance program to predict possible component failure in order to reduce equipment breakdown. The module introduces the various tools and techniques used in a predictive maintenance program, including infrared, corona detection, vibration analysis, oil analysis, and trend analysis, as well as explains the benefits of thermography and vibration analysis.
 Basic Troubleshooting

This module provides an overview of basic troubleshooting concepts. The topics covered in this module include identifying troubleshooting resources, understanding normal system operations, and diagnosing a problem using the halfsplit method. In addition, the module introduces the components of a troubleshooting flowchart.
Environment
 Environmental Awareness

The Environmental Awareness module discusses the impact of environmental issues on industry. This module provides an overview of environmental, health, and safety regulations established by law, such as OSHA and EPA regulations; priority pollutants, such as noise, water, air, and hazardous waste; and actions to take to minimize pollution.
 Hazardous Materials

This module identifies common industrial hazardous materials as determined by regulating agencies such as the EPA and OSHA, describes the handling and disposal of hazardous materials, and introduces related safety precautions and regulations.
Computers
 Computer Use Basics

This module provides an overview of basic computer concepts. The topics covered in this module include basic computer components, file management and naming conventions, and networking concepts.
 Computers in Industry

This module introduces typical computer use in industry. The module provides an overview of both residential and industrial computer systems, equipment control and monitoring systems, and portable peripheral devices, including both those that interface with equipment or a process and those that are used for recording information.
Print Reading
 Print Reading Basics

This module discusses the basics of print reading. Topics covered common industrial prints, such as schematics, P&IDs, blueprints, block diagrams, and construction plans; the importance of blueprints and schematics; the proper use of legends; the purpose of title blocks and revisions; and block diagrams.
 Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams

This module introduces the use of piping and instrumentation diagrams, as well as provides an explanation of how to read them. In addition, the module presents symbols, legends, and part lists that are used to read piping and instrumentation diagrams.
Science
 Introduction to Chemistry

This module provides a basic introduction to chemistry. Topics covered in this module include fundamental concepts of chemistry, such as chemical symbols and the period table; mixtures, solutions, and compounds, including examples of mixtures found around the home as well as those used in industry; and the properties of chemicals. In addition, the module identifies methods of chemical analysis.
 Water Chemistry

The Water Chemistry module discusses the chemical properties of water as well as its use in plant operation and maintenance. The module provides an overview of the properties of water, including whether or not water is potable; the types, sources, and effects of impurities in water, including water treatment systems; methods used to obtain water samples; parameters monitored by the water monitoring station; and the principles of water treatment, including wastewater and boiler feedwater treatment.
 Applied Physics I  Work, Energy and Power

This module introduces the terms work, energy, and power and explains the difference between potential and kinetic energy. Topics covered include the relationship between work, energy, and power; the basic types of energy, including chemical, mechanical, nuclear, gravitational, radiant, thermal, motion, sound, and electrical; the difference between potential and kinetic energy; the principles of levers and inclined planes; the operation of simple machines, including levers, pulleys, wheels and axles, and inclined planes.
 Applied Physics II  Laws of Motion

This module explains the terms, characteristics, and basic concepts of various physical processes. Topics covered include English and System International (SI) metric units for mass, length, and derived units; the proper use of conversion tables; the definition of force, including gravitational force, electromagnetic force, nuclear force, normal force, friction, elasticity, deformation, and torque; mass; velocity; and acceleration. This module will also describe the laws of motion and the relationship between force, mass, velocity, and acceleration.
 Applied Physics III  Heat Transfer

This module explains the principles of heat transfer, which concerns the exchange of thermal energy from one medium to another. Topics covered include the difference between heat and temperature, including the package boiler, temperature gauge, and associated piping; how to perform temperature calculations based on the Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales; specific heat, including the phase changes of water; and the three modes of heat transfer: convection, conduction, and radiant.
 Applied Physics IV  Fluid Mechanics

This module explains the principles of fluid mechanics, which deals with fluid flow — the natural science of fluids in motion. Harnessing the power of fluids, such as air, oil, and water, is fundamental to any industrial facility. Topics covered include the states of matter and how density is related to a state of matter; Pascal’s law for fluid power; the relationship between pressure, force, and area; and the relationship between fluid flow and the area of a pipe, including an explanation of Bernoulli’s equation.
 Applied Physics V  Ideal Gas Law

The Ideal Gas Law module continues to explain the principles of fluid dynamics. The topics covered in this module include the use of gases such as air, natural gas, and carbon dioxide in an industrial facility, as well as the Ideal Gas law and how to use it to calculate pressure changes.
 Applied Physics VI  Thermodynamics

This module introduces industrial applications of thermodynamics. Topics covered include the four laws of thermodynamics, including concepts such as thermal equilibrium, conservation of energy, entropy, and temperatures of absolute zero.
Basic Electricity Principles
 Basic Electricity

This module begins with the basic principles of electricity that every technician and electrician need to know. Building on these principles, technicians and electricians will be able to grasp more advanced topics and understand the principles of operation for specific equipment found on the job.
 Conductors and Insulators

From miniature circuit boards to the million miles of transmission lines in the world, conductors are the means to move electric currents. Every technician and electrician needs a fundamental understanding of the properties of conductors and the means to prevent current flowing to the wrong place through the use of insulators.
 Resistors

As one of the basic building blocks in modern technology, resistors are found in nearly every electrical and electronic circuit.
 Basic Laws of Electrical Circuits

Much of the daytoday work of an industrial electrician and technician involves taking readings and performing preventive maintenance of devices and equipment. The challenge is knowing what to do if the readings are not as expected. Mastery of a few basic laws of electrical circuits is needed to successfully analyze typical problems with circuits or equipment.
 Electrical Power

A 60 watt light bulb. A 500 watt power supply. A 1000 watt microwave. Electrical power and its unit, the watt, are routinely encountered and used in everyday life. Even though the term may be familiar, most people probably do not understand the concept of electrical power. As an electrician or technician, you not only need know what it is, but also be able to confidently calculate electrical power under a variety of onthejob situations.
 Electromagnetism

Motors, generators, servos, and many other industrial devices apply the basic principles of electromagnetism. A solid grasp of these principles is required for not only the understanding of how these devices work, but how they are controlled.
DC Circuits
 Batteries

Batteries are used throughout industry as backup or emergency power sources. They are routinely used to power mobile industrial equipment, such as automated guided vehicles. While most people are familiar with batteries used at home or in their auto, knowledge regarding how to care for and maintain batteries is less common. In industry, it is often said that batteries don’t die; they are killed by neglect and misuse. Further, there are thousands of eye injuries and burns due to battery explosions each year.
 Series Circuits

In order to safely work with series circuits, it is important to be able to calculate and understand the interactive relationships of current, resistance, and voltage.
 Parallel Circuits

In order to safely work with parallel circuits, it is important to be able to calculate and understand the interactive relationships of current, resistance, and voltage.
 SeriesParallel Circuits

Typical circuits encountered by a technician are rarely a pure series or parallel circuit. In practice, a combination is encountered on the job and requires application of several techniques to properly analyze circuit performance.
In order to safely work with parallel circuits, it is important to be able to calculate and understand the interactive relationships of current, resistance, and voltage.
 Switches and Relays

The controlled application and removal of electrical current is required for every electrical circuit. Light switches and power buttons are everyday examples that we generally take for granted. However, the electrical worker needs a more comprehensive view of these devices and the various types and configurations.
AC Circuits
 AC Generation and Basic AC Concepts

Generally, most people are familiar with alternating current (AC) in their everyday lives. It is common knowledge that a wall socket in a home in the United States is 120 VAC, but did you know that the peak voltage from that wall socket is 170 volts? That fact is simply a characteristic of AC that is described in this module.
A technician must have indepth knowledge of AC generation, characteristics, and measurement to maintain and troubleshoot industrial equipment effectively.
 Inductance, Capacitance, and Impedance

Resistance is a circuit characteristic that operates the same in both AC and DC circuits. However, two additional circuit characteristics are important in order to understand and analyze AC circuit operation: capacitance and inductance.
 Transformers

Transformers are the workhorse for the manipulation and isolation of AC power. They are found in everything from small chargers to the largest power substations. While a technician rarely repairs a transformer, it is necessary to identify transformer failures. Accordingly, understanding the principle operation and applications of a transformer is a fundamental need for every technician.
Motors and Servos
 AC and DC Motors

Electric motors are of the primary means to convert electrical energy into mechanical force in an industrial facility. Many different types of motors are in use for different applications. The type and application will determine the type of maintenance required to be performed by a technician, as well as typical modes of failure.
 Motor Control Fundamentals

When a motor fails to start or stop at the desired time, the technician will be called upon to determine the problem and then resolve it. Understanding the basic principles of how motors are controlled provides the basis for being able to analyze the specific motor control circuit and determine the fault.
 Servo Drive Fundamentals

A servomechanism, or servo for short, is a type of automatic control system using feedback for precise positioning or for speed control of a motor.
Servos and their drives are found in many industrial applications including robotics and machine speed control.
Semiconductors
 Diodes

A diode is an electrical device allowing current to move through it in one direction with far greater ease than in the other. The most common kind of diode in modern circuit design is the semiconductor diode.
 Bipolar Transistors

The transistor, invented in the early 1950s, revolutionized the field of electronics. Replacing the tube as an amplifying device, it soon became the fundamental building block for modern electronics. The bipolar transistor evolved from a single packaged device into many transistors embedded on a single integrated chip.
 Other Semiconductors

Semiconductor devices are the building blocks of electronic devices. They are used to control and modify electrical power and signals. The devices in this module are used in power supplies, oscillators and amplifiers. A good grasp of the operation of them will aid in understanding and troubleshooting electronic circuits.
Power Supplies
 Power Supplies

Power supplies supply regulated power to devices we see every day. From computers and cell phones to televisions and plant instrumentation, the power supply provides regulated power for proper operation.
 Uninterruptible Power Supplies

Uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) provide backup power on loss of main power to a system. The UPS is sometimes called a switching power supply and differs from a backup system such as a diesel in that it provides instantaneous switchover on loss of power. The principles of operation are the same whether backing up a desktop computer or a large power system.
 Fuses

Electrical circuits and components are rated to withstand a certain amount of current flow. Excessive current in a circuit results in overheating and destruction of components. Various protective methods can prohibit the occurrence of overheating by creating a weak link in the circuit that will fail under certain conditions. A commonly used protective device is the fuse.
 Circuit Breakers

Electrical circuits and components are rated to withstand a certain amount of current flow. Excessive current in a circuit results in overheating and destruction of components. Various protective methods are used by establishing a weaker link in the circuit that will fail before overheating occurs. A commonly used protective device is the circuit breaker.
Digital Electronics
 Communication and Controls I

Industrial devices communicate with each other using standard methods for accuracy and compatibility of data. This module introduces the communication methods.
 Communication and Controls II

Data communication between devices is transmitted over a network of wires, fiber optics, or through the atmosphere wirelessly. Communication media needs to properly installed and maintained for accurate information to transfer.
 Introduction to PLCs

Programmable logic controllers, or PLCs, are used to automate processes in industry. In the 1960s, the computerized processor replaced the relay logic control system. With the widespread use of PLCs in today’s automation industry, a technician is required to have a good understanding of their operation in order to perform maintenance and troubleshooting procedures.
 Introduction to VFDs

Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) control the speed of motors by varying the frequency of the supplied power. This provides accurate control of the motor speed and also reduces energy consumption. Many VFD brands exist in the marketplace. This module presents the operation of a typical VFD.
 Logic Gates and Number Systems

The basic building blocks of digital electronics are the logic gates. Most logic gates have two inputs and one output in one binary state of low or high, represented by different voltage levels. Counting performed by these logic gates occurs in a binary number format. Understanding the building blocks of digital circuits will aid in troubleshooting.
Work Practices
 Print Reading

One of the fundamental skills that must be mastered by a craftsperson is print reading. Prints are the building blocks that standardize manufacturing and aide in troubleshooting.
 Grounding Practices

Grounding of electrical equipment is necessary for safety, for signal accuracy, and to minimize interference in a circuit. Understanding proper grounding techniques will help in troubleshooting and may save your life.
 Test Equipment

Test equipment are the tools of the trade for the technician. They are needed for safety, for information and for troubleshooting equipment. A thorough understanding of the tools available and their application will make you a better technician.
 Electrical Safe Work Practices

Electricity is a powerful force that can damage equipment, injure or even cause death if not properly controlled. Working around electricity requires caution to prevent accidental contact with energized equipment. Several regulations exist to document the proper use of personal protective equipment and safety precautions but it is ultimately up to the worker to prevent accidents.
 Troubleshooting

Troubleshooting is a method for finding the root cause of a problem and correcting it. The ultimate goal of troubleshooting is to get the equipment back into operation. An entire production operation may depend on the troubleshooter’s ability to solve a problem quickly and economically.
At times, such a task might present itself as a daunting process. Fortunately, technicians have, through trial and error, adopted a series of best practices that, if followed, will make the task of troubleshooting any equipment or process much more intuitive. Sticking to these best practices and adopting a logical approach to solving the problem is always the best way to resolve the situation at hand.
Circuit Protection
 Basic Relaying I

Large electrical systems rely on protective relays to continuously monitor critical equipment throughout a facility. The sensing quantities and operating characteristics for relays is described in this module.
 Basic Relaying II

Protective relays have a variety of settings based on the level of protection required and the time for actuation of the relay. This module explains the necessary balance of time delay characteristics and zones of protection.
 Advance Circuit Breakers

Large industrial and power generation plants widely use breakers for voltages between 600 V and 30,000 V. This module describes these breaker designs and the associated protective features.
Motors and Motor Control
 AC Motors

AC Motors are widely used throughout industrial facilities and commercial industries. This module will introduce AC motor theory and describe the construction and operations of the most commonly used AC motors.
 Motor Control Fundamentals

Most industrial sized motors require complex equipment for the operational control. This module describes the operation and benefits of the different motor controllers.
 Motor Protection and Nameplate Data

All motors are required to display the operational limitations and protective limits. This information is crucial in establishing a well balanced electrical system, and aid in troubleshooting.
 Control Circuit Diagrams

Large facilities may have hundreds if not thousands of electrical devices that work together to accomplish a single task, as in a conveyor belt system within a distribution center. These devices use sequencing for this complex task, know as control circuits. To easily understand and analyze how a particular circuit operates, the circuit diagrams are used.
 Motor Starters

The selection of the motor starter circuit is critical for the safe and cost effective starting of large electrical motors. This module describes the types of starters used and the purpose for each design.
 DC Motors

DC motors are widely used due to their versatility for applications. This module describes the operating principles, while also providing detail of the DC shunt, series, and compound motors.
 Electrical Diagrams

An electrical circuit for motors may contain thousands of wires with dozens of inputs and outputs. This module provides the necessary understanding of control devices and the common electrical symbols used for electrical diagrams.
Transformers
 Transformers

Every industrial facility has thousands of instruments that provide valuable operational information of electrical and mechanical equipment. These instruments receive power from dedicated instrumentation transformers.
 Power Transformers I

Power transformers are widely used in power generation plants and distribution substations. The information that is required on the transformer nameplate distinguishes amongst the many different designs available. This module will describe the different designs and the nameplate information.
 Power Transformers II

Power transformers require precise testing upon installation and periodically to ensure proper operation. This module introduces some common tests and the purpose behind each.
Variable Frequency Drives
 VFD Fundamentals

Variable frequency drives, or VFDs, are widely used to provide variable speed operation to AC motors that normally operate at a standard speed. This module explains the functional operation, methods of interfacing, and the advantages and disadvantages of the various types of VFDs.
 VFD Installation and Programming

While there are many manufacturers for VFDs, the installation, and initial programming is critical. This module introduces the viewer to some standard requirements while reinforcing the use of the manufacturers’ provided manuals.
 VFD Troubleshooting

Troubleshooting of VFDs can be very complex and time consuming. This module provides the common fault and alarm indications, types, and troubleshooting methods.
Procedure Writing Best Practices
 Procedure Writing Best Practices
 Procedure writing is both an art and a science. Well written procedures reduce the number of errors and omissions in operations and maintenance, as well as assist less experienced personnel to perform complex tasks efficiently and effectively.
Workflow and Controls
 Workflow and Controls
 An important part of maintenance is a structured control program. This program provides a means to provide instructions for the maintenance technician through work orders. Work order results are recorded to provide a history of performance both of the technician and of the equipment. Performance of maintenance is scheduled for equipment access, cost control and to maximize equipment uptime. Planning the performance of jobs allows prestaging of parts, tools and even prebriefing of technicians on performance of work to increase efficiency. Tracking of performance through a series of key performance indicators will allow continuous improvement of the maintenance organization.
Preventive Maintenance Programs
 Preventive Maintenance Programs
 Periodic maintenance, performed to extend the life of equipment and reduce operating costs, is known as preventive maintenance. When you change the oil in your car, it is preventing premature failure of the engine. Your mechanic may tell you to change it every 3000 miles. Where does this number come from?
Introduction to Maintenance
 Introduction to Maintenance
 Whether a ship at sea, a car in your driveway or an 800 MW electrical generator at a power plant, all equipment is subjected to wear. Sometimes the wear is in the form of corrosion from exposure to chemicals or harsh atmospheric conditions. Sometimes it is due to friction or heat. Continued wear eventually results in failure of the equipment.
Equipment is designed to perform a specific function over a defined time period. Excessive wear reduces the lifespan causing early failures.
Whatever the cause, it is the inspection, repair, and replacement of components, known as maintenance that keeps the equipment running.
Condition Based Maintenance
 ConditionBased Maintenance
 Conditionbased Maintenance, or CBM, is the process of measuring and analyzing a parameter that has a direct relationship to the health, or operational, condition of equipment. The goal of CBM is to identify and correct equipment degradation prior to failure. CBM is also known as condition monitoring, or performance monitoring, or Predictive Maintenance, which is abbreviated as PdM.
There are a wide range of predictive technologies that support CBM. The table highlights typical applications for some of the more common predictive maintenance technologies and their applications.
