
The Combined Cycle Operator program covers the common skills and knowledge sets applicable to all industries that must be mastered for successful job performance in operations and maintenance as well as reviews all the major combined cycle plant components and auxiliary systems including combined cycle configurations, the Brayton and Rankine cycles, turbines and condensers, and HRSG operation.
The Basics part of the program focuses on entrylevel skills and knowledge, presented within an industrial context necessary to achieve the requisite competency for further specialization. A combustion turbine facility generates 50% more power output from the same amount of fuel that would be burned in a simple cycle combustion turbine. The Combined Cycle part of the program familiarizes learners with the many components that work together to produce energy in combined cycle plants.
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Overview of Industrial Systems
 Overview of Industrial Facility Systems

This module provides an overview of industrialscale systems, using comparisons to typical residential systems that are used in everyday life, as well as industrial standards and units of measure. These systems are used to provide examples and practical applications of the content presented in each subsequent subject area.
Safety
 Industrial Facility Safety

This module provides an overview of common industrial facility hazards and protective systems. Specific hazards covered include auditory hazards, highpressure steam hazards, travelling crane collision hazards, chemical hazards, tool hazards, and hazards related to working in confined spaces. This module also discusses current and voltage dangers, explaining high and lowvoltage hazards, dry and wet conditions, the effects of current on the human body, and the areas of a facility where these hazards may be encountered. Finally, this module describes systems designed to protect both personnel and equipment.
 Fire Safety

This module introduces key elements related to fire safety. Topics covered include the properties of fires and their underlying causes, including the combustion triangle, common fire hazards, and types of fires common in an industrial environment. Additionally, the module provides an overview of the ways in which fires are extinguished, as well as the key elements of fire safety.
 Hazardous Communications

This module provides an overview of hazardous communication standards. The standards require chemical manufacturers and employers to communicate information to workers about the hazards of workplace chemicals or products. Topics covered include the proper labeling of hazards, the NFPA Diamond, material safety data sheets, and proper implementation of hazardous communication programs.
 Lockout Tagout

This module provides an overview of an OSHA compliant lockout/tagout program, including how to recognize the various locks and tags that may be used. In addition, the module introduces the responsibilities of the authorized team member in regards to a lockout/tagout program to prevent injuries to personnel during the servicing and maintenance of equipment from sources of stored energy.
 Electrical Safety

This module provides an overview of the knowledge necessary to protect personnel and equipment from electrical hazards. Topics covered include the effects of current on the human body and emergency actions that should be taken in the event of an electrical shock. This module also explains the importance of electrical safeguarding, including the use of personal protective equipment and how to ensure that electrical equipment is deenergized.
 Industrial Signage

This module provides an overview of the common signage found in an industrial facility. Topics covered include how to interpret common signs in an industrial facility, the color code for labels used to identify hazards, and the OSHA color code for floor markings.
 Personal Protective Equipment

This module discusses the need for personal protective equipment (PPE) to reduce employee exposure to hazards. Topics covered include personal responsibilities regarding PPE, PPE that is commonly associated with industrial sites, and the proper care, use, and inspection of PPE. Finally, this module will explain the effects of using defective or incorrect PPE, including shock hazards, hardhat scenarios, and the risks of poorly rigged equipment falling on workers.
 First Aid I

This module provides guidance for effective responses and treatment related to external bleeding, burns, and nervous system injuries. Topics covered include OSHA compliant first aid kits and how an injured person should be evaluated. In addition, this module provides an overview of how to control external bleeding, the treatment of minor burns, and how to care for head, neck, and spinal injuries.
 First Aid II

This module provides an overview of basic first aid care. Topics covered include actions to take when poisoning is suspected or someone is choking. The module also explains how to perform CPR and the procedures for operating an AED device. Finally, this module describes how to identify the symptoms of a stroke.
 Benzene Awareness

This course will cover the awareness training of benzene and will answer questions such as: What is benzene? What are the health risks? Who is at risk for exposure? This course will also discuss the OSHA regulatory limits, personal protective equipment, and emergency procedures associated with benzene.
Mathematics
 Whole Numbers

This module provides an overview of mathematical functions using whole numbers. The topics in this module define whole numbers, natural numbers, integers, rational numbers, and real numbers, as well as explain how they are used in an industrial setting. In addition, this module describes mathematical operations using whole numbers, including addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
 Fractions

This module provides an overview of mathematical functions using fractions. The topics in this module define fractions and explain how they are used in an industrial setting. This module also explains the individual terms that make up a fraction and how to reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. In addition, this module describes how to perform mathematical operations using fractions, including addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
 Decimals and Percentages

This module provides an overview of mathematical functions using decimals and percentages, including the definition of decimals and percentages and an explanation of how they are used in an industrial setting. This module also explains how to convert fractions to decimals and decimals to fractions.
 Exponents and Scientific Notation

This module introduces mathematical functions using exponents and scientific notation, including a discussion of exponents, factors, radicals, and square roots. This module also explains how to identify numbers written in scientific notation. In addition, the module describes how to perform mathematical operations using exponential numbers, including addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
 Fundamentals of Algebra I

The Algebra I module introduces the basic functions of algebra in an industrial setting. Topics covered in this module include basic algebraic terms, including constants, variables, coefficients, and expressions, as well as how to perform mathematical operations using algebraic expressions, including addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
 Fundamentals of Algebra II

This module builds upon Algebra I and explains algebraic equations and how they may be applied in an industrial setting. Topics covered in the Algebra II module include an overview of the four axioms used for solving algebraic expressions and the methods by which the axioms are used. In addition, this module explains how to solve an algebraic equation with unknown quantities and the relationship between ratios and proportions.
 Fundamentals of Geometry I

This module provides an introduction to basic geometry and its uses in the maintenance field. The topics included in this module include the types of angles and their measurements, common terms in plane geometry, and formulas for calculating the perimeter area of triangles, squares, and rectangles.
 Fundamentals of Geometry II

This module builds on Fundamentals of Geometry I to provide the knowledge and mathematical tools to understand circles and other geometric figures. Topics covered in this module include the common parts of a circle and how to calculate the circumference, as well as the formulas for calculating the surface area and volume of threedimensional shapes.
 Fundamentals of Trigonometry

This module explains the fundamental principles of trigonometry and its uses in the maintenance field. The module provides an overview of the Pythagorean Theorem, the sine, cosine, and tangent functions, and trigonometric identities.
 Scientific Calculator Use

This module introduces the basic functions of a scientific calculator. The topics in the module include how to perform basic mathematical operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, as well as order of operations. The Scientific Calculator Use module also explains how to calculate percentages and square roots and how to enter numbers in scientific notations. In addition, this module describes how to use the trigonometric function of a scientific calculator.
 Fundamentals of Statistics I

This module provides an overview of statistics, which is the study of the collection, organization, and interpretation of data. The topics covered in this module include how to read tables and graphs, the difference between mean, median, and mode, and the normal distribution curve.
 Fundamentals of Statistics II

This module expands on Fundamentals of Statistics I to provide the tools necessary to understand more complex statistical operations and functions. The module provides an overview of standard deviation, how to analyze a distribution curve, the rules of probability, and industrial applications of statistical analysis.
 Introduction to Calculus

Calculus has widespread applications in science, engineering, and economics and can solve many problems for which algebra alone is insufficient. This module introduces the industrial uses of calculus, such as calculating production rate and rate of delivery, and covers topics including derivatives and integrals.
Tools
 Hand Tools I

The Hand Tools I module introduces some of the basic concepts related to hand tools and hand tool safety. This module provides an overview of the importance of hand tool safety and the basic functions and types of hammers, punches, prying tools, screwdrivers, and wrenches.
 Hand Tools II

Building on the Hand Tools I module, this module introduces the basic functions and types of additional hand tools. Topics covered include cutting tools, such as crosscut and rip saws, knives, cutting blades, files, and chisels, gripping and holding tools, such as pliers and clamps, and measuring tools.
 Power Tools

This module introduces the basic concepts related to power tools and power tool safety procedures and precautions, including the necessary knowledge to select the proper power tool for a given task and how to care for power tools and equipment.
Maintenance
 Preventive Maintenance

This module discusses the importance of preventive maintenance and how it aids in prolonging the life and increasing the reliability of equipment, instrumentation, and general facilities. This module provides an overview of the advantages and benefits of preventive maintenance, the difference between preventive and corrective maintenance, and computer maintenance management systems (CMMS).
 Predictive Maintenance

This module discusses the importance and implementation of a predictive maintenance program to predict possible component failure in order to reduce equipment breakdown. The module introduces the various tools and techniques used in a predictive maintenance program, including infrared, corona detection, vibration analysis, oil analysis, and trend analysis, as well as explains the benefits of thermography and vibration analysis.
 Basic Troubleshooting

This module provides an overview of basic troubleshooting concepts. The topics covered in this module include identifying troubleshooting resources, understanding normal system operations, and diagnosing a problem using the halfsplit method. In addition, the module introduces the components of a troubleshooting flowchart.
Environment
 Environmental Awareness

The Environmental Awareness module discusses the impact of environmental issues on industry. This module provides an overview of environmental, health, and safety regulations established by law, such as OSHA and EPA regulations; priority pollutants, such as noise, water, air, and hazardous waste; and actions to take to minimize pollution.
 Hazardous Materials

This module identifies common industrial hazardous materials as determined by regulating agencies such as the EPA and OSHA, describes the handling and disposal of hazardous materials, and introduces related safety precautions and regulations.
Computers
 Computer Use Basics

This module provides an overview of basic computer concepts. The topics covered in this module include basic computer components, file management and naming conventions, and networking concepts.
 Computers in Industry

This module introduces typical computer use in industry. The module provides an overview of both residential and industrial computer systems, equipment control and monitoring systems, and portable peripheral devices, including both those that interface with equipment or a process and those that are used for recording information.
Print Reading
 Print Reading Basics

This module discusses the basics of print reading. Topics covered common industrial prints, such as schematics, P&IDs, blueprints, block diagrams, and construction plans; the importance of blueprints and schematics; the proper use of legends; the purpose of title blocks and revisions; and block diagrams.
 Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams

This module introduces the use of piping and instrumentation diagrams, as well as provides an explanation of how to read them. In addition, the module presents symbols, legends, and part lists that are used to read piping and instrumentation diagrams.
Science
 Introduction to Chemistry

This module provides a basic introduction to chemistry. Topics covered in this module include fundamental concepts of chemistry, such as chemical symbols and the period table; mixtures, solutions, and compounds, including examples of mixtures found around the home as well as those used in industry; and the properties of chemicals. In addition, the module identifies methods of chemical analysis.
 Water Chemistry

The Water Chemistry module discusses the chemical properties of water as well as its use in plant operation and maintenance. The module provides an overview of the properties of water, including whether or not water is potable; the types, sources, and effects of impurities in water, including water treatment systems; methods used to obtain water samples; parameters monitored by the water monitoring station; and the principles of water treatment, including wastewater and boiler feedwater treatment.
 Applied Physics I  Work, Energy and Power

This module introduces the terms work, energy, and power and explains the difference between potential and kinetic energy. Topics covered include the relationship between work, energy, and power; the basic types of energy, including chemical, mechanical, nuclear, gravitational, radiant, thermal, motion, sound, and electrical; the difference between potential and kinetic energy; the principles of levers and inclined planes; the operation of simple machines, including levers, pulleys, wheels and axles, and inclined planes.
 Applied Physics II  Laws of Motion

This module explains the terms, characteristics, and basic concepts of various physical processes. Topics covered include English and System International (SI) metric units for mass, length, and derived units; the proper use of conversion tables; the definition of force, including gravitational force, electromagnetic force, nuclear force, normal force, friction, elasticity, deformation, and torque; mass; velocity; and acceleration. This module will also describe the laws of motion and the relationship between force, mass, velocity, and acceleration.
 Applied Physics III  Heat Transfer

This module explains the principles of heat transfer, which concerns the exchange of thermal energy from one medium to another. Topics covered include the difference between heat and temperature, including the package boiler, temperature gauge, and associated piping; how to perform temperature calculations based on the Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales; specific heat, including the phase changes of water; and the three modes of heat transfer: convection, conduction, and radiant.
 Applied Physics IV  Fluid Mechanics

This module explains the principles of fluid mechanics, which deals with fluid flow — the natural science of fluids in motion. Harnessing the power of fluids, such as air, oil, and water, is fundamental to any industrial facility. Topics covered include the states of matter and how density is related to a state of matter; Pascal’s law for fluid power; the relationship between pressure, force, and area; and the relationship between fluid flow and the area of a pipe, including an explanation of Bernoulli’s equation.
 Applied Physics V  Ideal Gas Law

The Ideal Gas Law module continues to explain the principles of fluid dynamics. The topics covered in this module include the use of gases such as air, natural gas, and carbon dioxide in an industrial facility, as well as the Ideal Gas law and how to use it to calculate pressure changes.
 Applied Physics VI  Thermodynamics

This module introduces industrial applications of thermodynamics. Topics covered include the four laws of thermodynamics, including concepts such as thermal equilibrium, conservation of energy, entropy, and temperatures of absolute zero.
Combined Cycle Fundamentals
 Combined Cycle Plant Overview

Combined cycle plants generate power through an assembly of heat engines working off of onesource of heat. The major components that make up a combined cycle plant include the gas turbine, heat recovery steam generator, steam turbine, and various other components making up the balance of plant. This module introduces these components and describes their purposes and theory of operation. In addition, the module provides an overview of the auxiliary systems found in combined cycle plants.
 Combined Cycle Theory of Operations

Combined cycle technology enables a combustion turbine facility to generate 50% more power output from the same amount of fuel that would be burned in a simple cycle combustion turbine. This introductory module provides an overview of the different configurations for a combined cycle plant, as well as a description of the two thermodynamic cycles that form this combination.
 Combined Cycle Major Components

Combined cycle plants incorporate many components that work together to produce energy. This module provides an overview of the four major components that make up a combined cycle plant, including the gas turbine, HRSG, steam turbine, and condenser. Additionally, the module describes the operation of each of these components.
 Introduction to Power Plants

We depend on electricity for many tasks each day, from lighting, heating and cooling our homes, to powering our televisions and computers. Despite its great importance in our daily lives, few of us stop to think what life would be like without electricity.
Gas Turbine
 Gas Turbine Basics

Whether for the production of power and heat or the transport of oil and gas, gas turbines are widely used for combined cycle applications. The Gas Turbine Basics module introduces the basic theory of operation for gas turbines, along with the common terminology used to describe their operation. Additionally, this module provides an overview of the major components of a gas turbine.
 Air Inlet Systems

Effective management of gas turbine inlet air quality and temperature is often the most economical option to increase power, reduce heat rate, and extend component life. This module provides an overview of air inlet systems, including common terminology, the purpose of major system components, and the different types of cooling systems.
 Compressor Section

This module provides an overview of the compressor section of a gas turbine, including its basic characteristics, theory of operation, and major components. Additionally, the module introduces inlet air heating systems and cooling air systems and explains their purpose.
 Combustion Section

This module provides an overview of the combustion section of a gas turbine, including its basic characteristics, theory of operation, and major components. Additionally, the module describes the function and major components of the combustion section’s fuel system.
 Turbine Section

This module introduces the turbine section of the gas turbine system and describes its basic characteristics, theory of operation, and major components. In addition, the module explains the function and major components of the turbine’s exhaust section.
 Gas Turbine Bearings

Thrust and journal bearings are a critical part of the turbine section’s function. This module provides an overview of the purpose of bearings within a combined cycle system, as well as common terminology that applies to bearings. Additionally, this module explains the theory of operation for the different types of bearings.
 Starting Packages

This module introduces the different types of starting packages used for gas turbines, including motoroperated, air or hydraulicoperated, and the static frequency control system or load commutated inverter (LCI). In addition, the module describes the theory of operation for these packages, as well as the major starting package components.
 Fuel Systems

This module provides an overview of the different types of fuel systems used within the gas turbine, including the fuel gas system, fuel oil system, and water injection system. In addition, the module explains the purpose of each of these systems and describes their major components.
 Combustion Control and Continuous Emission Monitoring

This module provides an overview of the different types of combustion control systems used for gas turbines, including related terminology, theory of operation, and the major components that make up these systems.
 Gas Turbine Lubricating and Lift Oil Systems

This module introduces the lubricating oil, hydraulic oil, and lift oil systems for the gas turbine, including common terminology related to the systems. Additionally, the module identifies and explains the major components that make up these three systems.
 Gas Turbine Hydraulic Oil Systems

This module introduces the lubricating oil, hydraulic oil, and lift oil systems for the gas turbine, including common terminology related to the systems. Additionally, the module identifies and explains the major components that make up these three systems.
 Fuel Support Systems

This module provides an overview of the fuel support systems for a gas turbine, including its basic characteristics, theory of operation, and major components. Additionally, the module describes the function and major components of the fuel support systems.
 Water Wash Systems

The water wash system is used during the cleaning process to improve gas turbine power output and efficiency. This module provides an introduction to the water wash system, including common terminology, as well as describes the major components within the system.
Heat Recovery Steam Generator
 Heat Recovery Steam Generator Drums and Blowdown Systems

The HRSG blowdown system is instrumental in ensuring the boiler water chemistry is kept within specifications with regard to dissolved and suspended solids, pH, conductivity, and silica content. This module introduces the blowdown system, explains its theory of operation, and describes the major components that make up the system.
 Boiler Water Chemistry

Correct chemical control and blowdown ensures efficient operation of the HRSG unit and can prevent costly repairs caused by deposits or corrosion of the HRSG tubes. This module introduces the purpose of water chemistry, describes the parameters that are monitored, and explains the various ways to control each of these parameters.
 Heat Recovery Steam Generator Basics

The HRSG blowdown system is instrumental in ensuring the boiler water chemistry is kept within specifications with regard to dissolved and suspended solids, pH, conductivity, and silica content. This module introduces the blowdown system, explains its theory of operation, and describes the major components that make up the system.
 Duct Burners and Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems

HRSG duct burners provide a means of increasing steam production within the HRSG through the introduction of additional thermal energy, while selective catalytic reduction (SCR) involves the injection of ammonia into the flue gas upstream of a catalyst structure. This module provides an overview of duct burners and SCRs, along with their theory of operation and description of major components.
Balance of Plant
 Balance of Plant Basics

Balance of plant is a grouping of equipment, such as the condenser and the condensate system. The term comes from balancing the amount of feed flow for the HRSG to the amount of steam flow from the HRSG in order to maintain a constant water level in the HP, IP, and LP drums. This module provides an overview of balance of plant basics and describes common terminology applicable to the balance of plant.
 HighPressure Steam Systems

The highpressure steam system delivers highpressure steam generated from the HRSG highpressure steam drum to the steam turbine. This module provides an overview of the common terminology associated with this system, as well as its theory of operation and the purpose of the system’s major components.
 Reheat and IntermediatePressure Steam Systems

This module provides an overview of the intermediatepressure steam system, including its purpose and the common terminology that applies to the system. Additionally, the module explains the theory of the intermediatepressure steam system’s operation, as well as the purpose of the major components found within the system.
This module provides an overview of the cold reheat steam system, including its purpose and the common terminology that applies to the system. In addition, the module explains the theory of the cold reheat steam system’s operation, as well as the purpose of the major components found within the system.
This module introduces the hot reheat steam system, describes its purpose, and defines the common terminology that applies to the system. In addition, the module explains the theory of the operation, as well as the purpose of the major components found within the hot reheat steam system.
 LowPressure Steam System

The lowpressure steam systems at a combined cycle power plant perform many important functions. This module provides an overview of the common terminology associated with these systems, as well as its theory of operation and the purpose of the system’s major components.
 Auxiliary Steam Systems

This module provides an overview of the auxiliary steam system, including its purpose and the common terminology that applies to the system. Additionally, the module explains the theory of the auxiliary steam system’s operation, as well as the purpose of the major components found within the system.
 Condensers

This module will describe the functions condensers perform at a power plant. It also provides an overview of the common terminology associated with condensers, as well as its theory of operation and the purpose of the system’s major components.
 Steam Plant Water Systems

This module provides an overview of the steam plant water system and introduces its purpose, common terminology, and major components. In addition, the module explains how the condensate and feedwater systems are used in the steam cycle for efficient plant operation.
 Cooling Water Systems

The cooling water systems provide a continuous source of cooling water to various equipment heat exchangers. This module provides an overview of the cooling water system, including the circulating water system and closedloop cooling water system. The module also discusses the purpose of each system and describes their major components.
 Processed Water Systems

This module provides an overview of the processed water systems found in a combined cycle plant, including the common characteristics and terminology used to describe these systems. In addition, the module explains the theory of operation for processed water systems and discusses how they interconnect.
 Demineralized Water Systems

This module provides an introduction the demineralized water system and describes its purpose and related terminology. Additionally, the module explains the theory of the demineralized water system’s operation, as well as the purpose of the major components found within the system.
 Reverse Osmosis Water Systems

This module provides an overview of reverse osmosis water systems, including their basic characteristics, theory of operation, and major components. Additionally, the module describes the function and major components of reverse osmosis water systems.
 Wastewater System

This module provides an overview of the wastewater system, including its purpose and the common terminology that applies to the system. In addition, the module explains the theory of operation for the wastewater system and describes the purpose of the major components found within the system.
 Compressed Gas Systems

The compressed gas system consists of two separate systems: the nitrogen system and the hydrogen system. This module explains the purpose of these systems as well as the common terminology used when working with them.
 Compressed Air Systems

This module provides an overview of compressed air systems, including their basic characteristics, theory of operation, and major components. Additionally, the module describes the function and major components of compressed air systems.
 Fire Protection Systems

This module provides an overview of the fire protection systems used at a combined cycle power plant, including its basic characteristics, theory of operation, and major components. Additionally, the module describes the function and major components of the fire protection systems.
Steam Turbine
 Steam Turbine Basics

This module introduces the various components found within the steam turbine, as well as the path in which steam flows through them. In addition, the module provides an overview of steam turbine valves, including their major components, and explains how steam turbine blading is designed.
 Steam Turbine Bearings

This module provides an overview of how bearings are used within the steam turbine, as well as the common terminology that applies to bearings. In addition, this module explains the theory of operation for the different types of bearings used within the steam turbine.
 Gland Seal Steam Systems

This module provides an overview of the steam turbine support systems, including common terminology related to the system. In addition, the module introduces the gland/seal steam system and turning gear.
 Steam Turbine Lubricating Oil Systems

This module introduces the steam turbine oil systems used within a combined cycle plant, including the lubricating oil system, hydraulic oil system, and seal oil system. The module provides an overview of the purpose of each system and describes the major components of each.
 Steam Turbine Hydraulic Oil Systems

This module introduces the steam turbine oil systems used within a combined cycle plant, including the lubricating oil system, hydraulic oil system, and seal oil system. The module provides an overview of the purpose of each system and describes the major components of each.
Electrical Power Generation and Distribution
 Generator Basics

This module provides an overview of how generators are used in a combined cycle plant. The module introduces the purpose of generators, common terminology, theory of operation, and major generator components. In addition, the module introduces the different types of generator cooling systems.
 Generator Cooling Systems

Every combined cycle plant has at least one generator. As the generator spins during normal operation, heat builds up in its windings and rotor. This heat needs to be removed to prevent damage to the generator. The purpose of a generator cooling system is to remove this heat from the generator during normal operation. This module introduces the fundamentals of generator cooling systems.
 Seal Oil Systems

The purpose of the seal oil system in a combined cycle plant is to prevent hydrogen from escaping the generator in an uncontrolled manner and to collect the hydrogen that does escape with the seal oil. By keeping the hydrogen in the generator’s casing, the hydrogen will continue to cool the generator’s windings and rotor and do so in a safe manner. This module explains seal oil systems, common terminology, major components, and its theory of operation.
 Switchyards and Power Distribution Lines

Switchyards provide the foundation and support for the conductors, insulators, circuit breakers, disconnect switches, and other equipment. This module introduces the purpose of switchyards and power distribution lines, as well as common terminology, theory of operation, and major components. In addition, the module provides an overview of the different types of relays used for generator protection.
Power Plant Efficiency
 Heat Rate Basics

Heat rate is the common measure of system efficiency in a power plant. The heat rate is a measure of the combined performance of the gas turbine cycle, the steam turbine cycle, and any other associated auxiliaries. This module introduces the basic characteristics of heat rate and provides instruction on how to calculate heat rate.
 Major Components’ Effect on Heat Rate

This module provides an overview of how the major components of a combined cycle plant affect the heat rate within it. The components covered in this module include: the HRSG, gas turbine, steam turbine, condenser, and other applicable plant equipment.
