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Effective and Engaging Industrial Skills Training

Industrial Maintenance Technician (Tesla)

Industrial Maintenance Technician (Tesla)

The Industrial Maintenance Technician certificate program is designed specifically for Tesla. 

$250.00

Overview of Industrial Systems

  • Overview of Industrial Facility Systems
    • This module provides an overview of industrial-scale systems, using comparisons to typical residential systems that are used in everyday life, as well as industrial standards and units of measure. These systems are used to provide examples and practical applications of the content presented in each subsequent subject area.

Safety

  • Industrial Facility Safety
    • This module provides an overview of common industrial facility hazards and protective systems. Specific hazards covered include auditory hazards, high-pressure steam hazards, travelling crane collision hazards, chemical hazards, tool hazards, and hazards related to working in confined spaces. This module also discusses current and voltage dangers, explaining high- and low-voltage hazards, dry and wet conditions, the effects of current on the human body, and the areas of a facility where these hazards may be encountered. Finally, this module describes systems designed to protect both personnel and equipment.
  • Fire Safety
    • This module introduces key elements related to fire safety. Topics covered include the properties of fires and their underlying causes, including the combustion triangle, common fire hazards, and types of fires common in an industrial environment. Additionally, the module provides an overview of the ways in which fires are extinguished, as well as the key elements of fire safety.
  • Hazardous Communications
    • This module provides an overview of hazardous communication standards. The standards require chemical manufacturers and employers to communicate information to workers about the hazards of workplace chemicals or products. Topics covered include the proper labeling of hazards, the NFPA Diamond, material safety data sheets, and proper implementation of hazardous communication programs.
  • Lockout Tagout
    • This module provides an overview of an OSHA compliant lockout/tagout program, including how to recognize the various locks and tags that may be used. In addition, the module introduces the responsibilities of the authorized team member in regards to a lockout/tagout program to prevent injuries to personnel during the servicing and maintenance of equipment from sources of stored energy.
  • Electrical Safety
    • This module provides an overview of the knowledge necessary to protect personnel and equipment from electrical hazards. Topics covered include the effects of current on the human body and emergency actions that should be taken in the event of an electrical shock. This module also explains the importance of electrical safeguarding, including the use of personal protective equipment and how to ensure that electrical equipment is de-energized.
  • Industrial Signage
    • This module provides an overview of the common signage found in an industrial facility. Topics covered include how to interpret common signs in an industrial facility, the color code for labels used to identify hazards, and the OSHA color code for floor markings.
  • Personal Protective Equipment
    • This module discusses the need for personal protective equipment (PPE) to reduce employee exposure to hazards. Topics covered include personal responsibilities regarding PPE, PPE that is commonly associated with industrial sites, and the proper care, use, and inspection of PPE. Finally, this module will explain the effects of using defective or incorrect PPE, including shock hazards, hardhat scenarios, and the risks of poorly rigged equipment falling on workers.
  • First Aid I
    • This module provides guidance for effective responses and treatment related to external bleeding, burns, and nervous system injuries. Topics covered include OSHA compliant first aid kits and how an injured person should be evaluated. In addition, this module provides an overview of how to control external bleeding, the treatment of minor burns, and how to care for head, neck, and spinal injuries.
  • First Aid II
    • This module provides an overview of basic first aid care. Topics covered include actions to take when poisoning is suspected or someone is choking. The module also explains how to perform CPR and the procedures for operating an AED device. Finally, this module describes how to identify the symptoms of a stroke.
  • Benzene Awareness
    • This course will cover the awareness training of benzene and will answer questions such as: What is benzene? What are the health risks? Who is at risk for exposure? This course will also discuss the OSHA regulatory limits, personal protective equipment, and emergency procedures associated with benzene.

Mathematics

  • Whole Numbers
    • This module provides an overview of mathematical functions using whole numbers. The topics in this module define whole numbers, natural numbers, integers, rational numbers, and real numbers, as well as explain how they are used in an industrial setting. In addition, this module describes mathematical operations using whole numbers, including addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
  • Fractions
    • This module provides an overview of mathematical functions using fractions. The topics in this module define fractions and explain how they are used in an industrial setting. This module also explains the individual terms that make up a fraction and how to reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. In addition, this module describes how to perform mathematical operations using fractions, including addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
  • Decimals and Percentages
    • This module provides an overview of mathematical functions using decimals and percentages, including the definition of decimals and percentages and an explanation of how they are used in an industrial setting. This module also explains how to convert fractions to decimals and decimals to fractions.
  • Exponents and Scientific Notation
    • This module introduces mathematical functions using exponents and scientific notation, including a discussion of exponents, factors, radicals, and square roots. This module also explains how to identify numbers written in scientific notation. In addition, the module describes how to perform mathematical operations using exponential numbers, including addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
  • Fundamentals of Algebra I
    • The Algebra I module introduces the basic functions of algebra in an industrial setting. Topics covered in this module include basic algebraic terms, including constants, variables, coefficients, and expressions, as well as how to perform mathematical operations using algebraic expressions, including addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
  • Fundamentals of Algebra II
    • This module builds upon Algebra I and explains algebraic equations and how they may be applied in an industrial setting. Topics covered in the Algebra II module include an overview of the four axioms used for solving algebraic expressions and the methods by which the axioms are used. In addition, this module explains how to solve an algebraic equation with unknown quantities and the relationship between ratios and proportions.
  • Fundamentals of Geometry I
    • This module provides an introduction to basic geometry and its uses in the maintenance field. The topics included in this module include the types of angles and their measurements, common terms in plane geometry, and formulas for calculating the perimeter area of triangles, squares, and rectangles.
  • Fundamentals of Geometry II
    • This module builds on Fundamentals of Geometry I to provide the knowledge and mathematical tools to understand circles and other geometric figures. Topics covered in this module include the common parts of a circle and how to calculate the circumference, as well as the formulas for calculating the surface area and volume of three-dimensional shapes.
  • Fundamentals of Trigonometry
    • This module explains the fundamental principles of trigonometry and its uses in the maintenance field. The module provides an overview of the Pythagorean Theorem, the sine, cosine, and tangent functions, and trigonometric identities.
  • Scientific Calculator Use
    • This module introduces the basic functions of a scientific calculator. The topics in the module include how to perform basic mathematical operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, as well as order of operations. The Scientific Calculator Use module also explains how to calculate percentages and square roots and how to enter numbers in scientific notations. In addition, this module describes how to use the trigonometric function of a scientific calculator.
  • Fundamentals of Statistics I
    • This module provides an overview of statistics, which is the study of the collection, organization, and interpretation of data. The topics covered in this module include how to read tables and graphs, the difference between mean, median, and mode, and the normal distribution curve.
  • Fundamentals of Statistics II
    • This module expands on Fundamentals of Statistics I to provide the tools necessary to understand more complex statistical operations and functions. The module provides an overview of standard deviation, how to analyze a distribution curve, the rules of probability, and industrial applications of statistical analysis.
  • Introduction to Calculus
    • Calculus has widespread applications in science, engineering, and economics and can solve many problems for which algebra alone is insufficient. This module introduces the industrial uses of calculus, such as calculating production rate and rate of delivery, and covers topics including derivatives and integrals.

Tools

  • Hand Tools I
    • The Hand Tools I module introduces some of the basic concepts related to hand tools and hand tool safety. This module provides an overview of the importance of hand tool safety and the basic functions and types of hammers, punches, prying tools, screwdrivers, and wrenches.
  • Hand Tools II
    • Building on the Hand Tools I module, this module introduces the basic functions and types of additional hand tools. Topics covered include cutting tools, such as crosscut and rip saws, knives, cutting blades, files, and chisels, gripping and holding tools, such as pliers and clamps, and measuring tools.
  • Power Tools
    • This module introduces the basic concepts related to power tools and power tool safety procedures and precautions, including the necessary knowledge to select the proper power tool for a given task and how to care for power tools and equipment.

Maintenance

  • Preventive Maintenance
    • This module discusses the importance of preventive maintenance and how it aids in prolonging the life and increasing the reliability of equipment, instrumentation, and general facilities. This module provides an overview of the advantages and benefits of preventive maintenance, the difference between preventive and corrective maintenance, and computer maintenance management systems (CMMS).
  • Predictive Maintenance
    • This module discusses the importance and implementation of a predictive maintenance program to predict possible component failure in order to reduce equipment breakdown. The module introduces the various tools and techniques used in a predictive maintenance program, including infrared, corona detection, vibration analysis, oil analysis, and trend analysis, as well as explains the benefits of thermography and vibration analysis.
  • Basic Troubleshooting
    • This module provides an overview of basic troubleshooting concepts. The topics covered in this module include identifying troubleshooting resources, understanding normal system operations, and diagnosing a problem using the half-split method. In addition, the module introduces the components of a troubleshooting flowchart.

Environment

  • Environmental Awareness
    • The Environmental Awareness module discusses the impact of environmental issues on industry. This module provides an overview of environmental, health, and safety regulations established by law, such as OSHA and EPA regulations; priority pollutants, such as noise, water, air, and hazardous waste; and actions to take to minimize pollution.
  • Hazardous Materials
    • This module identifies common industrial hazardous materials as determined by regulating agencies such as the EPA and OSHA, describes the handling and disposal of hazardous materials, and introduces related safety precautions and regulations.

Computers

  • Computer Use Basics
    • This module provides an overview of basic computer concepts. The topics covered in this module include basic computer components, file management and naming conventions, and networking concepts.
  • Computers in Industry
    • This module introduces typical computer use in industry. The module provides an overview of both residential and industrial computer systems, equipment control and monitoring systems, and portable peripheral devices, including both those that interface with equipment or a process and those that are used for recording information.

Print Reading

  • Print Reading Basics
    • This module discusses the basics of print reading. Topics covered common industrial prints, such as schematics, P&IDs, blueprints, block diagrams, and construction plans; the importance of blueprints and schematics; the proper use of legends; the purpose of title blocks and revisions; and block diagrams.
  • Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams
    • This module introduces the use of piping and instrumentation diagrams, as well as provides an explanation of how to read them. In addition, the module presents symbols, legends, and part lists that are used to read piping and instrumentation diagrams.

Science

  • Introduction to Chemistry
    • This module provides a basic introduction to chemistry. Topics covered in this module include fundamental concepts of chemistry, such as chemical symbols and the period table; mixtures, solutions, and compounds, including examples of mixtures found around the home as well as those used in industry; and the properties of chemicals. In addition, the module identifies methods of chemical analysis.
  • Water Chemistry
    • The Water Chemistry module discusses the chemical properties of water as well as its use in plant operation and maintenance. The module provides an overview of the properties of water, including whether or not water is potable; the types, sources, and effects of impurities in water, including water treatment systems; methods used to obtain water samples; parameters monitored by the water monitoring station; and the principles of water treatment, including wastewater and boiler feedwater treatment.
  • Applied Physics I - Work, Energy and Power
    • This module introduces the terms work, energy, and power and explains the difference between potential and kinetic energy. Topics covered include the relationship between work, energy, and power; the basic types of energy, including chemical, mechanical, nuclear, gravitational, radiant, thermal, motion, sound, and electrical; the difference between potential and kinetic energy; the principles of levers and inclined planes; the operation of simple machines, including levers, pulleys, wheels and axles, and inclined planes.
  • Applied Physics II - Laws of Motion
    • This module explains the terms, characteristics, and basic concepts of various physical processes. Topics covered include English and System International (SI) metric units for mass, length, and derived units; the proper use of conversion tables; the definition of force, including gravitational force, electromagnetic force, nuclear force, normal force, friction, elasticity, deformation, and torque; mass; velocity; and acceleration. This module will also describe the laws of motion and the relationship between force, mass, velocity, and acceleration.
  • Applied Physics III - Heat Transfer
    • This module explains the principles of heat transfer, which concerns the exchange of thermal energy from one medium to another. Topics covered include the difference between heat and temperature, including the package boiler, temperature gauge, and associated piping; how to perform temperature calculations based on the Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales; specific heat, including the phase changes of water; and the three modes of heat transfer: convection, conduction, and radiant.
  • Applied Physics IV - Fluid Mechanics
    • This module explains the principles of fluid mechanics, which deals with fluid flow — the natural science of fluids in motion. Harnessing the power of fluids, such as air, oil, and water, is fundamental to any industrial facility. Topics covered include the states of matter and how density is related to a state of matter; Pascal’s law for fluid power; the relationship between pressure, force, and area; and the relationship between fluid flow and the area of a pipe, including an explanation of Bernoulli’s equation.
  • Applied Physics V - Ideal Gas Law
    • The Ideal Gas Law module continues to explain the principles of fluid dynamics. The topics covered in this module include the use of gases such as air, natural gas, and carbon dioxide in an industrial facility, as well as the Ideal Gas law and how to use it to calculate pressure changes.
  • Applied Physics VI - Thermodynamics
    • This module introduces industrial applications of thermodynamics. Topics covered include the four laws of thermodynamics, including concepts such as thermal equilibrium, conservation of energy, entropy, and temperatures of absolute zero.

Industrial Hydraulic Fundamentals

  • Hydraulic Theory
    • Originally, the science of hydraulics covered the physical behavior of water at rest and in motion. The term has broadened its meaning to include the physical behavior of all liquids. This includes that area of hydraulics in which confined liquids are used under controlled pressure to do work. This area of hydraulics is sometimes referred to as power hydraulics. In order to safely and correctly operate a power hydraulic system, it is necessary to understand how the fluid behaves and why it behaves the way it does.
  • Hydraulic Components I
    • The use of hydraulics to transmit power has reached almost every facet of the industrial world. These hydraulic systems are composed of the hydraulic fluid itself, pipes and tubes used to transport the fluid, and components that perform a variety of functions. In order to understand how a hydraulic system works, it is important to understand the functions of the various components and how they operate.
  • Hydraulic Components II
    • The use of hydraulics to transmit power has reached almost every facet of the industrial world. These hydraulic systems are composed of the hydraulic fluid itself, pipes and tubes used to transport the fluid, and components that perform a variety of functions. In order to understand how a hydraulic system works on the whole, it is important to understand the functions of the various components and how they operate.
  • Hydraulic Systems
    • The use of hydraulics to transmit power has reached almost every facet of the industrial world. With an understanding of hydraulic theory and the various types of hydraulic components, it is possible to understand the designs and functions of an entire hydraulic system. Knowledge of how these systems operate and the ability to read system schematics are crucial to the proper operation and maintenance of any hydraulic system.

Industrial Pneumatic Fundamentals

  • Pneumatic Theory I
    • Pneumatic systems, like hydraulic power systems, are classified as fluid power systems. The term hydraulics refers to a liquid used as the fluid, while the term pneumatic specifies a system that uses a compressed gas as the fluid. The gas most commonly used is compressed air, although some applications may use other gases, such as nitrogen or carbon dioxide.
  • Pneumatic Theory II
    • The use of pneumatics has become a large part of industrial operations and maintenance. Pneumatic systems and tools reduce required work, reduce time required, and increase efficiency over manual operations. This module explains how these things are accomplished.
  • Pneumatic Components I
    • Modern uses of pneumatics include the use of compressed air to move objects through pneumatic tubes, the control of industrial processes through air logic control, and the operation of various tools and equipment. While pneumatic systems can be used to perform a wide array of functions, the same types of components are used in any system dealing with pressurized air. In order to understand how a pneumatic system works on the whole, it is important to understand the functions of the various components and how they operate.
  • Pneumatic Components II
    • Modern uses of pneumatic components include the use of compressed air to move objects through pneumatic tubes, the control of industrial processes through air logic control, and the operation of various tools and equipment. While pneumatic systems can be used to perform a wide array of functions, the same types of components are used in any system dealing with pressurized air. In order to understand how a pneumatic system works on the whole, it is important to understand the function and operation of the various components.
  • Pneumatic Systems
    • Pneumatic systems serve a variety of uses in the industrial world. They range from simple stand-alone systems used to power pneumatic tools, to complex systems used to automatically control intricate processes. Safe and efficient operation is dependent upon the operator’s ability to read the schematics for these systems and understand how the components work together.
  • Air Compressor I
    • Compressors are machines that create high-pressure gas or liquid through staged compression. Compressors can provide pressure through single and multiple stages, ranging from 25 psig to 10,000 psig.
  • Air Compressor II
    • Water droplets will form when air is saturated with water vapor. This condensation point, known as the dew point, varies with pressure and temperature. The higher the temperature at a given pressure, the more moisture can be contained in the air before it is saturated. When air moves from the compressor along a pipeline, its temperature drops and water forms in the line. The greatest cooling occurs when the air is expanded or used in doing expansive work. If the dew point is not lowered by drying prior to this time, damage may occur in the form of corrosion, spray from equipment exhaust, rusting, and moistening of working parts.
  • Air Compressor III
    • Rotary screw compressors are the workhorses behind most manufacturers worldwide.  If you see a big building and they make stuff there, there's a good chance there is a rotary screw air compressor powering their manufacturing process.

Precision Measurement Instruments

  • Precision Measuring Instruments
    • “Measure twice, cut once,” is a phrase that is often heard in the working world. This phrase simply means that if the measurement is not correct, the cut will not matter. To minimize the chance of a “bad cut”, the development of precision measuring instruments came about. These tools provide a very precise measurement to allow a reading in the thousandths of an inch or millimeter. Precision measuring tools can be used for detailed measurements of inside diameter, outside diameter, roundness, surface finish, lengths, and depths.
  • Micrometers
    • In this module you will learn about several different types of micrometers, what each of them should be used for, and how to properly use them. You will also learn how to read a micrometer and techniques to prevent mistakes when taking measurements.
  • Vernier Calipers
    • The modern vernier caliper, which reads to thousandths of an inch, was invented by American Joseph R Brown in 1851. It was the first precision measurement tool that was priced reasonably enough for most machinists. The ability to make precise measurements was instrumental in producing modern interchangeable parts.
  • Dial Indicators
    • In the modern age of precision, the ability to measure any difference from the standard measurement is essential to ensure equipment longevity and accuracy. There is also a need for exact measurements of lash or play in equipment components to prevent binding. The dial indicator provides the ability to measure both of these variances as well as many others.
  • Fixed Gauges
    • Many different types of measuring devices are used for dimensional inspection. The primary factors involved in selecting the best device are the type of dimension to be measured, the tolerance of the dimension, and the characteristics of the measuring device. This module describes several types of fixed gages with particular attention given to their application.

Pumps

  • Pump Design
    • Pumps have been used to enhance life since 2,000 BC with the creation of the shadoof by the Egyptians. Since that point in time, there have been many advances, both in design and purpose. Pumps can be used to move solids, liquids, and gases from one place to another. They also can be used to raise the pressure in a system for hydraulic operations. Today, most pumps are classified as centrifugal or positive displacement pumps. To adequately understand and use each pump, it is important to first understand the purpose, design, and common terms associated with pumps.
  • Centrifugal Pumps
    • Pumps have been used to enhance life since 2,000 BC with the creation of the shadoof by the Egyptians. Since that point in time, there have been many advances: both in design and purpose. Pumps can be used to move solids, liquids, and gases from one place to another. They also can be used to raise pressure in a system for hydraulic operations. Today, most pumps are classified as centrifugal or positive displacement pumps. This module will focus on centrifugal pumps.
  • Positive Displacement Pumps
    • Pumps have been used to enhance life since 2,000 BC with the creation of the shadoof by the Egyptians. Since that point in time, there have been many advances, both in design and purpose. Pumps can be used to move solids, liquids, and gases from one place to another. They also can be used to raise pressure in a system for hydraulic operations. Today, most pumps are classified as centrifugal or positive displacement pumps. This module will explain the operation and types of positive displacement pumps.
  • Special-Purpose Pumps
    • Pumps have been used to enhance life since 2,000 BC with the creation of the shadoof by the Egyptians. Since that point in time, there have been many advances, both in design and purpose. Pumps can be used to move solids, liquids, and gases from one place to another. They also can be used to raise pressure in a system for hydraulic operations. Today, most pumps are classified as centrifugal or positive displacement pumps. To adequately understand and use each pump, it is important to first understand the purpose and design of the pump. This module will focus on special purpose pumps.
  • Pump Maintenance
    • Pumps have been used to enhance life since 2,000 BC with the creation of the shadoof by the Egyptians. Since that point in time, there have been many advances, both in design and purpose. Pumps can be used to move solids, liquids, and gases from one place to another. They also can be used to raise pressure in a system for hydraulic operations. Today, most pumps are classified as centrifugal or positive displacement pumps. To adequately understand and use each pump, it is important to understand the maintenance requirements of the pump.
  • Mechanical Seals
    • In the modern age, leakage from equipment has become unacceptable, no matter if the liquid is water or harmful chemicals. Fortunately, mechanical seals provide a sealing method around the rotating shafts, at the location where they exit housings. This allows for a safe and clean operation in today’s safety- and environmentally-minded world.

Static and Dynamic Sealing

  • Packing
    • Many systems found in industrial environments contain gases and liquids at high temperatures or pressures, or fluids that are otherwise inherently dangerous, such as ammonia. Within these systems are components that break the boundaries of the system with moving parts, like the stem of a valve or the shaft of a pump. In order to prevent the fluid within these systems from escaping to the atmosphere, packing is installed that can seal the component yet still allow relative motion between its parts. It is important to understand how this packing works, how it is installed, and what must be done to maintain it in a proper working condition.
  • Gaskets
    • Gaskets are widely used throughout industry to prevent leakage between stationary surfaces. Gasket replacement is an important maintenance job that saves money and down time. Therefore it is important for industry personnel to learn about the types of gaskets, as well as how to safely cut, replace, and install gaskets.
  • Bolted Joints I
    • Two common concerns in industrial facilities are leaking joints and vibrating equipment. These problems lead to excessive repair costs every year. This module explains the importance of proper torque for a bolted joint and the stresses that can affect the joint.
  • Bolted Joints II
    • There are many methods in place to attempt to prevent a mechanical joint from loosening. Some methods start at the initial design of the bolted joint with the selection of the flange surface finish and face design. Another important part of the bolted joint is the selection and use of the bolts or stud bolts.
  • Threaded Fasteners
    • Since their mass production and standardization became possible in the late 18th century, threaded fasteners have played a large role in industry. The strength, versatility, ubiquity, and low cost of threaded fasteners has resulted in their use in everything from structural supports for buildings to the bolts used to mount a motor to its base. While relatively simple in design and construction, selecting the proper fastener can be a very important choice. Many industrial disasters and fatalities have been attributed to a poorly chosen or defective fastener.
  • Torque and Tension
    • When is a fastener tight? The complete answer relies on the understanding of torque and tension, and how they are applied to bolts and threaded fasteners.

Valve Fundamentals

  • Basic Types and Operations I
    • In this module, several types of these valves and their common components will be briefly discussed, as well as the proper mounting and installation guidelines.
  • Basic Types and Operations II
    • Isolation or insufficient flow can result in instantaneous overpressurization and/or explosions; therefore, the proper positioning of isolation and throttle valves is crucial to the safe operation of any system. Gate, globe, needle, and butterfly valves are all used to stop, start, and throttle flow.
  • Basic Types and Operations III
    • Flow reversals and improper flow rates can lead to equipment failure and destruction. By understanding valve operations and ensuring proper valve orientation, these situations can be avoided. Ball valves and plug valves are used to stop, start, and throttle flow, while the check valve is used to prevent flow reversal, and the regulating valve is used to automatically adjust flow.
  • Relief and Safety Valves I
    • Many industrial facilities use pressurized liquids and gases in systems to perform functions, such as tool and instrument operation, energy production, and heating and cooling. All systems, regardless of how well they were engineered or the quality of the materials used, will have a maximum pressure they can withstand before a failure occurs. A system that fails in this manner can result in production downtime, destruction of expensive equipment, and even loss of life. One method used to prevent such a failure is the installation of automatic pressure relieving devices. Two such devices, relief valves and safety valves, are used to automatically relieve overpressure conditions in systems.
  • Relief and Safety Valves II
    • Industrial facilities use piping systems and tanks to transport and store water, steam, and gases at various temperatures and pressures. Although the pressures in these systems are carefully monitored and adjusted, operator error or an equipment malfunction can result in a loss of pressure control. If pressure is allowed to increase or decrease beyond the tolerances of the system containing the fluid, a catastrophic failure can occur. Relief and safety valves are used to prevent this from occurring, thereby avoiding equipment damage and personnel injury.
  • Actuators
    • A single facility can have hundreds, if not thousands, of valves to control everything from turbine operation to ventilation, to systems that ensure the safety of personnel and equipment. The valves used can range in size from less than an inch to several feet in diameter. While some of these valves are designed to be operated manually, many of them require some form of automatic or remote operation. Operators and technicians must understand the different types of actuators used to operate these valves, and how these actuators work.

Pipes and Pipe Fitting

  • Piping & Tubing
    • Piping and tubing are essential to the operation of nearly all industrial equipment, and are also found extensively throughout the home. From the pipes transporting 2000 psi steam in a power plant to the tubing carrying the hot water from a hot water heater to the bathtub, all piping and tubing is standardized and regulated for safety.
  • Piping Materials and Manufacturing Methods
    • This module will introduce you to piping materials and manufacturing methods. Topics included in this module are piping materials criteria, mechanical and physical properties of metal, and pipe manufacturing methods.
  • Pipe Insulation
    • Controlling heat loss in a piping system is essential to maximize thermal efficiency. The proper selection of materials during design will ensure the system operates within specifications with minimum heat loss to the environment. Insulation also provides for a more temperate work environment while also protecting workers from hot piping.
  • Pipe Hangers and Supports
    • As engineers plan piping systems, the support structure for these systems is designed as well. The use of pipe hangers and supports is crucial to prevent unnecessary stress on piping, while still allowing necessary movement. Properly supporting piping and piping components will extend their lifespan, by eliminating or reducing the stress on component housings.
  • Codes and Standards
    • As technology has progressed, the pressures and temperatures of liquids in piping systems have drastically increased. These pressurized liquids are capable of containing enormous amounts of stored energy, and therefore the piping carrying them needs to be regulated to ensure the personnel safety. Piping codes and standards are the first line in protecting people from these dangers, but the attention to detail and quality checks of the personnel constructing and operating these systems are crucial to safe operation.

Lubrication Concepts

  • Principles of Lubrication
    • When any two objects are in contact, at least one type of force is acting on the contact point, friction. Friction can cause wearing of material and generate heat. To minimize the effects of friction, a lubricant is used to partially separate the two objects.
  • Preventing Wear and Erosion
    • Mechanical equipment is designed to last a lifetime, in an ideal situation. As equipment is used, friction, heat, and system flow will cause wear and erosion to occur. A lubricant is used to prevent excessive damage.
  • Bearing System Lubrication
    • Proper lubrication is a key factor affecting a bearing’s performance and longevity. Just as there are many different types of applications in which bearings are used, there are many ways of providing lubrication based on the application. In order to maintain and work on these systems, a technician must have an understanding of the various methods used.
  • Lubricant Properties
    • Whenever an object moves against another object, friction will be present, turning kinetic energy into heat and causing equipment to wear. Using lubricants helps to reduce this friction, allowing more work to be done for the same amount of energy input, lowering the temperatures of the materials in contact, and greatly extending the lifespan of the moving equipment.
  • Machinery Lubrication
    • From temperatures of over 1,000 degrees Fahrenheit to speeds in the tens of thousands of revolutions per minute, the moving parts of industrial machinery experience colossal amounts of stress as part of their everyday operation. One of the main factors that allows equipment to operate under such extreme circumstances is the lubrication used to reduce friction between moving surfaces. Understanding the types, selection, and care of the lubrication found in an industrial facility is vital knowledge for operators and technicians.

Bearing Maintenance

  • Bearing Fundamentals
    • All rotating equipment creates radial and axial forces during normal operation. These forces can lead to catastrophic failure of the equipment unless the proper support equipment and systems are used. The most critical is the selection of bearings and lubrication systems.
  • Rolling Contact Bearings I
    • Rolling bearings are used in almost every object, from bicycles to power generation equipment. There are many rolling bearing designs, but each is constructed to reduce rolling friction with the aid of proper lubrication techniques.
  • Rolling Contact Bearings II
    • Normal maintenance of rolling contact bearings includes ensuring proper installation and lubrication methods are used. During the removal process of a bearing, the reason for a bearing failure can be analyzed and identified.
  • Sliding Surface Bearings
    • Rotating equipment, like large motors and generators, produce large amounts of force. These forces can be in a radial or axial direction to that of the shaft. A common means to support and counter these forces is through the use of journal and thrust bearings.

Mechanical Transmission Systems

  • Gear Drives
    • Gear drives and gearboxes are an essential part of equipment operation. Understanding the components, terminology, and the variety of characteristics of gears and transmission assemblies is crucial to the effective and efficient operation of these devices.
  • Gearbox Maintenance
    • Gearboxes and reduction drives are essential components of the industrial world. They allow the use of smaller motors to drive larger equipment, and the ability to slow the drive speed of a motor down to a number of useful speeds that are needed for equipment operation. The proper maintenance of these gearboxes is essential to their longevity and efficiency.
  • Belt Drives I
    • Belt drives are used to transmit power from a pulley to one or more other pulleys, and are popular due there cost effectiveness and relative simplicity. They are used in a multitude of applications, such as: Automotive engine accessory drives Air compressors Vacuum cleaner brush drives Riding lawn mower blade drives
  • Belt Drives II
    • There are many types of belts that are used in both industrial and commercial applications. One widely used design is the V-belt, which is commonly found in high performance engines.
  • Belt Drives III
    • Variable speed drives allow a single motor to drive multiple loads at different speeds. This simple design reduces the number of drives required and, therefore, maximizes available space.
  • Belt Drives IV
    • Belt drives are used in industrial equipment to reduce noise levels and equipment vibrations. There are several designs that are used for specific purposes.
  • Belt Drives Maintenance
    • Maintaining a belt drive in proper working condition will maximize the life of the belts, bushings, bearings, and sheaves. In this module, the common maintenance checks will be discussed.
  • Chain Drives I
    • In an industrial facility, motors and turbines use energy to produce rotational mechanical motion. In order to harness this motion to perform useful work, there must be a way to transmit it to other components and machines. One method of power transmission is through the use of chain drives and sprockets.
  • Chain Drives II
    • In an industrial facility, motors and turbines use energy to produce rotational mechanical motion. In order to harness this motion to perform useful work, there must be a way to transmit it to other components and machines. One method of power transmission is through the use of chain drives and sprockets.

Rigging

  • Basic Rigging
    • In industry, the term "rigging" defines the process of moving heavy loads with ropes, hoists, and other types of specially designed tools. The term is also used to define the equipment used to lift the load. Rigging jobs consist of anything from routine lifting maneuvers to complex movements of heavy equipment and components. Regardless of the size of the job, the basic equipment and procedures are essentially the same.
  • Advanced Rigging I
    • Lifting heavy loads with cranes can be hazardous if not done right. Learn types of cranes and inspection procedures in this course.
  • Advanced Rigging II
    • Lifting heavy loads with cranes can be hazardous if not done right. Learn lifting procedures for bridge and boom cranes in this course.

Shaft Alignment

  • Types and Effects of Shaft Misalignment
    • Shaft couplings are used extensively throughout industry on a variety of equipment to ensure the proper connection between equipment components. Proper connection and flexibility is vital to long machinery life. In this module, participants are introduced to the basics of the alignment process as well as the causes, indications, and effects of misalignment.
  • Alignment Tools and Methods
    • The purpose of the Alignment Tools and Methods module is to familiarize technicians with the most common alignment methods used today. As with any method, there are potential sources of error, as well as advantages. This module points out some of the more important aspects for each method and covers visual line-up, straightedge and feeler gauge, rim and face, cross dial, reverse dial, and laser shaft alignment methods. In addition, participants learn about alignment preparation and the pre-alignment checklist.
  • Soft Foot and Bar Sag
    • Soft foot is defined as a condition where the machine’s feet do not lie in the same plane as the base. Machine frame distortion is the result of changes that occur internally or externally to the frame of the machine. This often causes a shaft deflection or movement as the hold-down bolt is tightened when a soft foot condition exists. Another common problem is indicator sag, which is the effect of gravity on a fixture. This module teaches participants to detect and correct soft foot and bar sag.
  • Moving the Machine
    • Moving a machine can be the most difficult step in the entire alignment process. Alignment correction is physically moving the piece of machinery the amount prescribed by the calculations. Because the process of moving a piece of equipment is time-consuming, it is necessary that the move is based on good data calculations. This module teaches participants how to accurately perform the three stages of the alignment process.
  • Rim and Face Alignment
    • The rim and face alignment method is one of the most common alignment techniques used in industry. This method is usually used when laser alignment equipment is not available for use. This module teaches participants about the proper techniques for performing rim and face alignments.
  • Cross and Reverse Dial Alignment
    • The mathematical formula for calculating adjustments to properly align a shaft using the reverse double dial indicator alignment method follows a basic rise over run geometric principle. By following this principle, the alignment of machinery can be easily accomplished using the formulas. This module teaches participants how to accurately calculate and perform the cross and reverse dial alignments.
  • Laser Alignment
    • This module introduces laser alignment tools and their use to measure shaft misalignment.

Welding Fundamentals

  • Introduction to Welding
    • This module will introduce you to welding and welding processes. Welding is a common process for joining metals using a large variety of applications. Welding occurs in several locations, from outdoors on rural farms and construction sites to inside factories and job shops. Welding processes are fairly simple to understand, and basic techniques can be learned quickly.
  • General Welding Safety
    • This module will introduce you to general welding safety. Topics included in this module are hazards associate with welding, proper PPE, and additional equipment to safely weld.
  • Shielded Metal Arc Welding
    • This module will introduce you to shielded metal arc welding, or SMAW. SMAW is the most commonly used welding method, often used for repair jobs on farms, construction sites, and industrial equipment sites. This process is also preferred for outdoor welding.
  • Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
    • This module will introduce you to gas tungsten arc welding, or GTAW. GTAW was developed to produce high quality welds on a variety of metals. GTAW requires the welder to be more skilled than other welding processes and is used in a number of work environments.
  • Gas Metal Arc Welding
    • This module will introduce you to gas metal arc welding, or GMAW. GMAW is the most popular method of welding due to its adaptability in various industries. This type is commonly used for sheet metal work and utilizes a continuous wire feed to complete welds.
  • Oxyacetylene Welding and Cutting
    • This module will introduce you to the oxyacetylene welding (OAW) and cutting process. OAW is one of the easiest forms of welding to learn and the equipment is low cost. Oxyacetylene cutting is also just as easy to learn and provides a means to cut through very thick materials. OAW and oxyacetylene cutting can be found in a number of environments including shops, construction sites, and salvage yards.
  • Brazing
    • This module will introduce you to brazing. Brazing provides a means to combine different materials without affecting the composition of the materials. Brazing works with temperatures above 800ºF and creates bonds as strong as welded materials.
  • Weld Joint Inspection
    • This module will introduce you to the importance of quality welds and processes involved in analyzing welds. Topics included in this module are the effects of poor welds, causes of poor welds, and nondestructive and destructive testing methods used on welds.

Heat Exchangers

  • Heat Exchangers I
    • Heat exchangers are vital to everyday life and can be found in a variety of places. Wherever heat must be added or removed to a space, object, or process, some type of heat exchanger is employed. The hot water tank in your house contains an internal heat exchanger that transfers heat energy from an outside source to the water within the tank. An example of a heat exchanger removing heat is an automotive radiator, which removes heat from the engine and transfers it to the exterior. 
  • Heat Exchangers II
    • Heat exchangers come in a variety of configurations as there is, for the most part, no “one size fits all” standard regarding what type to use in a situation or process. Therefore, understanding the differences between common types of heat exchangers, their construction, operation, and unique characteristics becomes vital not only to ensure that personnel understand what types of heat exchangers are being used, but also to ensure maintenance issues can be coordinated quickly.

Basic Electricity Principles

  • Basic Electricity
    • This module begins with the basic principles of electricity that every technician and electrician need to know. Building on these principles, technicians and electricians will be able to grasp more advanced topics and understand the principles of operation for specific equipment found on the job.
  • Conductors and Insulators
    • From miniature circuit boards to the million miles of transmission lines in the world, conductors are the means to move electric currents. Every technician and electrician needs a fundamental understanding of the properties of conductors and the means to prevent current flowing to the wrong place through the use of insulators.
  • Resistors
    • As one of the basic building blocks in modern technology, resistors are found in nearly every electrical and electronic circuit.
  • Basic Laws of Electrical Circuits
    • Much of the day-to-day work of an industrial electrician and technician involves taking readings and performing preventive maintenance of devices and equipment. The challenge is knowing what to do if the readings are not as expected. Mastery of a few basic laws of electrical circuits is needed to successfully analyze typical problems with circuits or equipment.
  • Electrical Power
    • A 60 watt light bulb. A 500 watt power supply. A 1000 watt microwave. Electrical power and its unit, the watt, are routinely encountered and used in everyday life. Even though the term may be familiar, most people probably do not understand the concept of electrical power. As an electrician or technician, you not only need know what it is, but also be able to confidently calculate electrical power under a variety of on-the-job situations.
  • Electromagnetism
    • Motors, generators, servos, and many other industrial devices apply the basic principles of electromagnetism. A solid grasp of these principles is required for not only the understanding of how these devices work, but how they are controlled.

DC Circuits

  • Batteries
    • Batteries are used throughout industry as backup or emergency power sources. They are routinely used to power mobile industrial equipment, such as automated guided vehicles. While most people are familiar with batteries used at home or in their auto, knowledge regarding how to care for and maintain batteries is less common. In industry, it is often said that batteries don’t die; they are killed by neglect and misuse. Further, there are thousands of eye injuries and burns due to battery explosions each year.
  • Series Circuits
    • In order to safely work with series circuits, it is important to be able to calculate and understand the interactive relationships of current, resistance, and voltage. 
  • Parallel Circuits
    • In order to safely work with parallel circuits, it is important to be able to calculate and understand the interactive relationships of current, resistance, and voltage.
  • Series-Parallel Circuits
    • Typical circuits encountered by a technician are rarely a pure series or parallel circuit. In practice, a combination is encountered on the job and requires application of several techniques to properly analyze circuit performance. In order to safely work with parallel circuits, it is important to be able to calculate and understand the interactive relationships of current, resistance, and voltage.
  • Switches and Relays
    • The controlled application and removal of electrical current is required for every electrical circuit. Light switches and power buttons are everyday examples that we generally take for granted. However, the electrical worker needs a more comprehensive view of these devices and the various types and configurations.

AC Circuits

  • AC Generation and Basic AC Concepts
    • Generally, most people are familiar with alternating current (AC) in their everyday lives. It is common knowledge that a wall socket in a home in the United States is 120 VAC, but did you know that the peak voltage from that wall socket is 170 volts? That fact is simply a characteristic of AC that is described in this module. A technician must have in-depth knowledge of AC generation, characteristics, and measurement to maintain and troubleshoot industrial equipment effectively.
  • Inductance, Capacitance, and Impedance
    • Resistance is a circuit characteristic that operates the same in both AC and DC circuits. However, two additional circuit characteristics are important in order to understand and analyze AC circuit operation: capacitance and inductance.
  • Transformers
    • Transformers are the workhorse for the manipulation and isolation of AC power. They are found in everything from small chargers to the largest power substations. While a technician rarely repairs a transformer, it is necessary to identify transformer failures. Accordingly, understanding the principle operation and applications of a transformer is a fundamental need for every technician.

Motors and Servos

  • AC and DC Motors
    • Electric motors are of the primary means to convert electrical energy into mechanical force in an industrial facility. Many different types of motors are in use for different applications. The type and application will determine the type of maintenance required to be performed by a technician, as well as typical modes of failure.
  • Motor Control Fundamentals
    • When a motor fails to start or stop at the desired time, the technician will be called upon to determine the problem and then resolve it. Understanding the basic principles of how motors are controlled provides the basis for being able to analyze the specific motor control circuit and determine the fault.
  • Servo Drive Fundamentals
    • A servomechanism, or servo for short, is a type of automatic control system using feedback for precise positioning or for speed control of a motor. Servos and their drives are found in many industrial applications including robotics and machine speed control.

Semiconductors

  • Diodes
    • A diode is an electrical device allowing current to move through it in one direction with far greater ease than in the other. The most common kind of diode in modern circuit design is the semiconductor diode.
  • Bipolar Transistors
    • The transistor, invented in the early 1950s, revolutionized the field of electronics. Replacing the tube as an amplifying device, it soon became the fundamental building block for modern electronics. The bipolar transistor evolved from a single packaged device into many transistors embedded on a single integrated chip.
  • Other Semiconductors
    • Semiconductor devices are the building blocks of electronic devices. They are used to control and modify electrical power and signals. The devices in this module are used in power supplies, oscillators and amplifiers. A good grasp of the operation of them will aid in understanding and troubleshooting electronic circuits.

Power Supplies

  • Power Supplies
    • Power supplies supply regulated power to devices we see every day. From computers and cell phones to televisions and plant instrumentation, the power supply provides regulated power for proper operation.
  • Uninterruptible Power Supplies
    • Uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) provide backup power on loss of main power to a system. The UPS is sometimes called a switching power supply and differs from a backup system such as a diesel in that it provides instantaneous switchover on loss of power. The principles of operation are the same whether backing up a desktop computer or a large power system.
  • Fuses
    • Electrical circuits and components are rated to withstand a certain amount of current flow. Excessive current in a circuit results in overheating and destruction of components. Various protective methods can prohibit the occurrence of overheating by creating a weak link in the circuit that will fail under certain conditions. A commonly used protective device is the fuse.
  • Circuit Breakers
    • Electrical circuits and components are rated to withstand a certain amount of current flow. Excessive current in a circuit results in overheating and destruction of components. Various protective methods are used by establishing a weaker link in the circuit that will fail before overheating occurs. A commonly used protective device is the circuit breaker.

Digital Electronics

  • Communication and Controls I
    • Industrial devices communicate with each other using standard methods for accuracy and compatibility of data. This module introduces the communication methods.
  • Communication and Controls II
    • Data communication between devices is transmitted over a network of wires, fiber optics, or through the atmosphere wirelessly. Communication media needs to properly installed and maintained for accurate information to transfer.
  • Introduction to PLCs
    • Programmable logic controllers, or PLCs, are used to automate processes in industry. In the 1960s, the computerized processor replaced the relay logic control system. With the widespread use of PLCs in today’s automation industry, a technician is required to have a good understanding of their operation in order to perform maintenance and troubleshooting procedures.
  • Introduction to VFDs
    • Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) control the speed of motors by varying the frequency of the supplied power. This provides accurate control of the motor speed and also reduces energy consumption. Many VFD brands exist in the marketplace. This module presents the operation of a typical VFD.
  • Logic Gates and Number Systems
    • The basic building blocks of digital electronics are the logic gates. Most logic gates have two inputs and one output in one binary state of low or high, represented by different voltage levels. Counting performed by these logic gates occurs in a binary number format. Understanding the building blocks of digital circuits will aid in troubleshooting.

Work Practices

  • Print Reading
    • One of the fundamental skills that must be mastered by a craftsperson is print reading. Prints are the building blocks that standardize manufacturing and aide in troubleshooting.
  • Grounding Practices
    • Grounding of electrical equipment is necessary for safety, for signal accuracy, and to minimize interference in a circuit. Understanding proper grounding techniques will help in troubleshooting and may save your life.
  • Test Equipment
    • Test equipment are the tools of the trade for the technician. They are needed for safety, for information and for troubleshooting equipment. A thorough understanding of the tools available and their application will make you a better technician.
  • Electrical Safe Work Practices
    • Electricity is a powerful force that can damage equipment, injure or even cause death if not properly controlled. Working around electricity requires caution to prevent accidental contact with energized equipment. Several regulations exist to document the proper use of personal protective equipment and safety precautions but it is ultimately up to the worker to prevent accidents.
  • Troubleshooting
    • Troubleshooting is a method for finding the root cause of a problem and correcting it. The ultimate goal of troubleshooting is to get the equipment back into operation. An entire production operation may depend on the troubleshooter’s ability to solve a problem quickly and economically. At times, such a task might present itself as a daunting process. Fortunately, technicians have, through trial and error, adopted a series of best practices that, if followed, will make the task of troubleshooting any equipment or process much more intuitive. Sticking to these best practices and adopting a logical approach to solving the problem is always the best way to resolve the situation at hand. 

Introduction to Instrumentation and Control

  • Industrial Instrumentation and Control Overview
    • Instrumentation and control technicians maintain the safe and efficient operation of industrial measurement and control systems. A broad knowledge of multiple disciplines is required to effectively work with and troubleshoot instrumentation systems; physics, chemistry, mathematics, electronics, mechanics, and control theory all need to be applied to some extent. An instrument technician must be able to synthesize and apply this knowledge to real applications. The continued addition of new technologies adds to the challenge. For existing industrial facilities, new equipment is phased in for specific applications and legacy technologies typically remain. It is very common to find state-of-the-art instrumentation next to decades-old instruments, such as digital networks running alongside pneumatic signal tubes or microprocessor-based sensors mounted next to mercury switches. A competent instrumentation and control technician must be comfortable working with old and new technologies, and also have a sound knowledge of measurement principles and system interactions.
  • Principles of Measurement
    • The fields of measurement and instrumentation involve very specific terminology for describing instrument performance characteristics. A technician routinely encounters these terms and principles on the job, typically in the form of instrument specifications. Additionally, many of the routine tasks performed are related to instrument calibration, and are based on basic measurement principles to ensure instrument performance is in conformance to specifications.
  • Industrial Signal Standards
    • A technician may encounter a wide variety of signal standards based on the type of industrial processes and, depending on the age of the facility, possibly multiple generations of standards. A background in common analog and digital standards provides a technician with perspective, necessary for understanding the specific standards used in a specific facility, as well as the reasons for their use.

Process Measurement

  • Pressure Measurement
    • Pressure is one of the fundamental parameters measured in industry. A typical industrial facility may have hundreds or even thousands of pressure meters.
  • Level Measurement
    • Liquid level measurement is critical to the safe operation of a facility. The level measurements obtained are used to monitor and control many of the processes in an industrial facility. Numerous technologies exist that measure the liquid level in a vessel; each type uses different principles of physics to sense the level and provide output to a transmitter or transducer. The basic types of measurement devices can be broken up into two categories, direct measurement and inferred measurement.
  • Introduction to Flow Measurement
    • Flow measurement is one of the four fundamental parameters measured in industrial instrumentation that every technician needs to be well versed in, particularly the principles and technology used. It is also arguably the most complex and has the greatest variety of types of measurement devices.
  • Head Flow Meters
    • Head flow meters, or differential pressure flow meters, are the most common flow meters used in industrial facilities. It is estimated that over 50 percent of all fluid flow measurement applications use head flow meters.
  • Linear and Mass Flow
    • Linear meters, as the name implies, are a classification of flow meters that do not require square root extraction. The two main categories of linear flow meters are: Positive displacement flow meters that directly measure volumetric flow. Velocity flow meters that inferentially measure volumetric flow. Both head and linear flow meters can be used to derive mass flow rate. However, true mass flow meters are used to more accurately measure mass flow rate.
  • Temperature Measurement I
    • Temperature measurement is critical to controlling equipment, processes, and other industrial applications. From power plants to warehousing facilities, accurate temperature measurement is critical to the safe operation and control of these processes and facilities. There are many ways to measure temperature, from the familiar liquid filled thermometer to using resistance temperature detectors and thermocouples. This module will cover the most common methods used to measure temperature.
  • Temperature Measurement II
    • There are many way to measure temperature. From the simple liquid-filled thermometer to the infrared pyrometer, there are a number of reliable and accurate devices used in industry to perform this critical measurement. The type of device chosen is usually determined by factoring in required accuracy, the environment in which it is used, the temperature range over which the measurement is required, and the cost.

Process Control and Monitoring

  • Process Control Fundamentals
    • In almost all industrial process applications, control of process variables is critical to the safe and efficient operation of the process. The most common variables controlled are pressure, level, temperature, and flow. Even though there are many different methods used to control these processes, this monitoring and control is generically called process control. Level, pressure, temperature, and flow are all controlled in a similar fashion. In this series of modules, level control will be used to explain the various concepts and control methods.
  • Two-Position and Proportional Control
    • Control of processes is accomplished by using a number of control strategies. Two of the most common methods of control that will be discussed in this module are two-position and proportional control.
  • Integral, Derivative, and PID Control
    • Offset error in proportional controllers is a problem when trying to maintain a process variable at an exact value. As we saw in the proportional control module, one way to eliminate offset error is to manually reset the controller. The problem with manual reset is just that — it’s manual. If we could automatically perform a reset every time a process supply or demand change occurred, the issue of offset error would be eliminated. We can do just that by adding integral to a controller. Integral, sometimes called reset, is used in conjunction with proportional control to bring the process back to setpoint without having an offset error. While integral eliminates the offset error, it brings its own issues, which are dealt with by adding derivative to the mix. The result is a control mode known as proportional, integral, and derivative control, commonly known as PID control.
  • Loop Tuning
    • In order for a control loop to operate as desired, it must first be tuned. Tuning a control loop is the act of adjusting the values of proportional gain, integral gain, and derivative gain such that the process responds in a manner desired by the operator. There are two major methods of tuning a control loop: open and closed loop. Almost all technicians will use the closed loop method, where data is taken from an operating loop that is online. Open loop methods are more often used on the initial startup of a system and allow engineers to collect baseline data. This module will only cover closed loop tuning methods.
  • Advanced Control Methods
    • While PI or PID controls are the most common forms of control strategies used on control loops, there are some other control strategies that are used to solve control issues. The control strategies discussed in this module are: Feed forward control Cascade control Ratio control Three element control
  • Introduction to Actuators
    • A single facility can have hundreds, if not thousands, of valves to control everything from turbine operation to ventilation, to systems that ensure the safety of personnel and equipment. The valves used can range in size from less than an inch to several feet in diameter. While some of these valves are designed to be operated manually, many of them require some form of automatic or remote operation. Operators and technicians must understand the different types of actuators used to operate these valves, and how these actuators work.
  • Actuator Principles of Operation
    • A single facility can have hundreds, if not thousands, of valves to control everything from turbine operation to ventilation, to systems that ensure the safety of personnel and equipment. The valves used can range in size from less than an inch to several feet in diameter. While some of these valves are designed to be operated manually, many of them require some form of automatic or remote operation. Operators and technicians must understand the different types of actuators used to operate these valves, and how these actuators work.
  • Control Valve I
    • On June 11, 2008 at the Goodyear plant in Houston, TX, a heat exchanger violently ruptured due to an over pressurization caused by the isolation of a pressure relief valve. An employee walking nearby was killed by the hurtling debris from the explosion. An understanding of the importance of these valves and their proper positioning could have prevented this incident. In this module, several types of these valves and their common components will be briefly discussed, as well as the proper mounting and installation guidelines.
  • Control Valves II
    • Isolation or insufficient flow can result in instantaneous overpressurization and/or explosions; therefore, the proper positioning of isolation and throttle valves is crucial to the safe operation of any system. Gate, globe, needle, and butterfly valves are all used to stop, start, and throttle flow.
  • Control Valves III
    • Flow reversals and improper flow rates can lead to equipment failure and destruction. By understanding valve operations and ensuring proper valve orientation, these situations can be avoided. Ball valves and plug valves are used to stop, start, and throttle flow, while the check valve is used to prevent flow reversal, and the regulating valve is used to automatically adjust flow.
  • Control System Architecture
    • Control loops, implemented with proportional, integral, or derivative control circuitry and simpler on/off system control points, are utilized within one of three architectures. PLCs, or Programmable Logic Controllers, are used in smaller and simpler applications. They are the oldest of the three technologies and are often programmed with ladder-logic, relay-based tools. DCSs, or Distributed Control Systems, can be used to control an entire, large scale production facility, such as a power plant or refinery. DCSs can control separate PLC systems and have other branches they simultaneously control. SCADA, or Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition, systems are used to control even larger applications, such as a series of power plants connected to a grid or multiple refineries all supplying multiple pipelines.
  • Limitorque Valve Actuator Fundamentals
    • The first type of motor controller was the knife switch. It was a simple design and very effective, but also very dangerous. To protect workers from harm, equipment from damage, and to improve operations, a wide range of improvements have been made over the years. Today, complex limitorque valve actuators are one of many advanced designs that allow for safer and more precise control of valve positioning.

Programmable Logic Controls

  • PLC Overview
    • Programmable logic controllers, or PLCs, are used to automate processes in industry. In the 1960s, the computerized processor replaced the relay logic control system. With the widespread use of PLCs in today’s automation industry, a technician is required to have a good understanding of their operation in order to perform maintenance and troubleshooting procedures.
  • PLC Communications
    • In order for a PLC to effectively operate, it must be able to communicate with computers, field devices, other systems, and the various modules that make up the PLC system.
  • PLC Software
    • Software is used in a PLC to create user projects and programs, which allow the PLC to operate. The software allows each user to create individual and unique programs for each type of PLC.
  • PLC Hardware
    • Hardware is the physical equipment that makes up a PLC system. It includes chassis, I/O cards, processors, power supplies, communication cards and interconnecting wiring.
  • PLC Addressing
    • PLCs can monitor and control thousands of individual field devices. In order to correctly access these devices, each device is assigned a point, or address, in the PLC. The method by which these addresses are assigned is called addressing.

Process Analyzers

  • Introduction to Process Analyzers
    • The main four process variables encountered in the field of Instrumentation and Control are temperature, pressure, level and flow. However, none of these parameters provide qualitative information about the actual substance being measured and controlled. Process analyzers are used to determine qualitative properties of a process parameter, such as impurities in water or moisture content of a gas. A technician may encounter various types of analyzers depending upon the industry and specific parameters of concern within the process.
  • Gas Chromatography I
    • A sample of gas may contain several different types of gases. The main goal in the gas industry is to identify and separate the one gas source into several useful, pure gas volumes. Chromatography is the collective term for a set of techniques used for the separation of mixtures. Gas chromatography is used for separating and analyzing compounds that can be vaporized without decomposition.
  • Gas Chromatography II
    • Obtaining the knowledge of exact gas concentrations allows for more efficient and higher processing rates of natural gas. The gas industry relies on gas chromatography to analyze and identify the exact concentrations of the sample gas.
  • Hydrogen Sulfide and Oxygen Analyzers
    • Both oxygen (O2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are present in varying concentrations in unrefined natural gas. Although most of the oxygen and hydrogen sulfide are removed during the refining process, trace amounts still remain. These trace remnants and their levels must be monitored and controlled to ensure gas quality standards, as well as prevent corrosion of pipeline materials and damage to handling and utilization equipment. This module will serve as an introduction to the equipment and methods used in determining the presence and concentrations of oxygen and hydrogen sulfide in a gas sample.
  • Moisture Analyzers
    • There are many applications in which trace moisture measurements are necessary for manufacturing and process quality assurance. Some examples are: Moisture in percentage amounts is monitored as a specification in commercial food production. Trace moisture in solids must be controlled for plastics, pharmaceuticals and heat treatment processes. Trace moisture must be measured and controlled in dry air, hydrocarbon processing, pure semiconductor gases, bulk pure gases, dielectric gases, such as those in transformers and power plants, and natural gas pipeline transportation. This module will serve as an introduction to some of the equipment and methods used to measure the amount of moisture in a gas sample.
  • Density Analyzers
    • Density is one of the fundamental physical properties required when the composition of a product sample is being determined in a process industry. Product density measurements are needed for: Process monitoring and control Custody transfers
  • Dew Point Analyzers
    • Dew point is the specific temperature at which condensation begins. Process gas analyzers for dew point/moisture content perform an important role in operations.  They are used to: Monitor for damaging levels of entrained liquids to protect piping and equipment Correct for entrained water to calculate amount of gas during custody transfers
  • Hydrogen Sulfide Gas Analyzers
    • Hydrogen sulfide, or H2S, exists in many natural gas and oil fields throughout the world.  H2S is both highly toxic and corrosive, and must be reduced to acceptable levels to: Preserve public safety Reduce corrosion in pipelines and related equipment Ensure proper custody transfer agreements Control the odor of the gas
  • Introduction to Spectrometry
    • Spectrometry is an analysis technique that measures the electromagnetic radiation emitted, absorbed, or scattered by a sample in order to study, identify, and quantify its composition and structure. Spectrometric measurements can be: Quantitative - determining how much of a component is present Qualitative - identifying what components are found in a sample
  • Infrared Spectrometry
    • Infrared, or IR, spectrometers are commonly used to determine the concentration of sample components, like carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, as well as that of common functional groups like the oxygen-hydrogen bond in liquids and gases.
  • Mass Spectrometry
    • Mass spectrometry is an analysis technique that is used to determine the composition of process samples. Advances in technology have led to the development of versatile, easy-to-use mass spectrometers. Mass spectrometers are commonly used in, among others, the oil and gas, environmental, pharmaceutical, and food processing industries.
  • Process Analyzer Detectors
    • Gas analyzer detectors are used to identify specific types of compounds within a given gas sample. Knowing the concentration of these various compounds is vital to the safe and efficient operation of plant systems. 
  • Residual Chlorine Analyzers
    • Chlorination treatment is widely used for the disinfection of potable water supplies and industrial water systems. Residual chlorine levels are monitored in: Influent water for proper disinfection levels, enabling operators to optimize processing Effluent water to ensure they are within acceptable limits prior to discharge
  • Turbidity Analyzers
    • Turbidity is used as a measure of the clarity or cloudiness of a liquid. It gives a good indication of the appearance of water in an aesthetic sense, but more importantly, it is an indicator of the amount of suspended material.
  • UV-VIS Spectrometry
    • Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-VIS) spectrometry is used to measure the concentration of components in liquids and gases. Visible light can be seen by the human eye, while ultraviolet, or UV, light cannot.
  • pH Analyzers
    • Whether it be the drinking water produced by a municipal water treatment plant or the feedwater that will become the steam used to spin a power plant turbine generator, the ability to control the pH of a fluid is vital to many industrial processes. In order to control and optimize the pH of a process fluid, it is important to first understand what pH is, how it can be measured, and how it can have an effect on different processes.
  • Total Organic Carbon Analyzers
    • Total Organic Carbon, or TOC, analyzers provide important water analysis by detecting organic compounds in process water. TOC levels are monitored in: Influent water for the early detection of high organic loads, enabling operators to optimize processing Effluent water to help control the amount of organics present prior to discharging wastewater
  • Introduction to Chromatography
    • Chromatography is an analytical method used to separate, identify, and quantify substances of a product into its chemical components for identification. For example, a gas chromatograph can be used to identify the amount of sulphur present in crude oil or the amount of each chemical component in natural gas.
  • Titration Basics
    • Titration is a common method of chemical analysis that is used to determine the unknown concentration of an analyte, the substance being analyzed, in a solution. There are many types of titrations with different procedures and goals.
  • X-Ray Spectrometry
    • X-ray spectrometry is an analysis technique that measures the radiation emitted from a sample. Each element is composed of specific atoms. X-ray spectrometry identifies the types of atoms found in a sample, therefore identifying the elements that are present. Advances in technology have led to the development of compact X-ray spectrometers, ranging from inline and table top equipment to small handheld devices.

Distributed Control Systems (DCS)

  • Data Acquisition and Control System Architecture
    • Control system architecture can range from simple local control to highly redundant distributed control. Supervisory control and data acquisition, or SCADA, systems, by definition, apply to facilities that are large enough that a central control system is necessary. Reliability criteria for C4ISR facilities dictate the application of redundant or distributed central control systems.
  • Data Acquisition Communication Strategies
    • Communication networks may be used in supervisory control and data acquisition, or SCADA, systems to pass data between field devices and programmable logic controllers, or PLCs. They can also be used between different PLCs or between PLCs and personal computers that are used for operator interface, data processing and storage, or management information.
  • Data Acquisition System Reliability
    • Supervisory control and data acquisition, or SCADA, systems require many design considerations to obtain a high level of reliability. These considerations include everything from the power supply to the individual components that make up the whole system.
  • Operator Interface Strategies
    • Operator interfaces are referred to as human machine interfaces, or HMIs. For supervisory control and data acquisition, or SCADA, systems, HMIs provide the functions of status indication, alarm reporting, operator intervention in control action, and data storage and programming.

Combined Cycle Fundamentals

  • Introduction to Power Plants
    • We depend on electricity for many tasks each day, from lighting, heating and cooling our homes, to powering our televisions and computers. Despite its great importance in our daily lives, few of us stop to think what life would be like without electricity.
  • Combined Cycle Plant Overview
    • Combined cycle plants generate power through an assembly of heat engines working off of onesource of heat. The major components that make up a combined cycle plant include the gas turbine, heat recovery steam generator, steam turbine, and various other components making up the balance of plant. This module introduces these components and describes their purposes and theory of operation. In addition, the module provides an overview of the auxiliary systems found in combined cycle plants.
  • Combined Cycle Theory of Operations
    • Combined cycle technology enables a combustion turbine facility to generate 50% more power output from the same amount of fuel that would be burned in a simple cycle combustion turbine. This introductory module provides an overview of the different configurations for a combined cycle plant, as well as a description of the two thermodynamic cycles that form this combination.
  • Combined Cycle Major Components
    • Combined cycle plants incorporate many components that work together to produce energy. This module provides an overview of the four major components that make up a combined cycle plant, including the gas turbine, HRSG, steam turbine, and condenser. Additionally, the module describes the operation of each of these components.

Gas Turbine

  • Gas Turbine Basics
    • Whether for the production of power and heat or the transport of oil and gas, gas turbines are widely used for combined cycle applications. The Gas Turbine Basics module introduces the basic theory of operation for gas turbines, along with the common terminology used to describe their operation. Additionally, this module provides an overview of the major components of a gas turbine.
  • Air Inlet Systems
    • Effective management of gas turbine inlet air quality and temperature is often the most economical option to increase power, reduce heat rate, and extend component life. This module provides an overview of air inlet systems, including common terminology, the purpose of major system components, and the different types of cooling systems.
  • Compressor Section
    • This module provides an overview of the compressor section of a gas turbine, including its basic characteristics, theory of operation, and major components. Additionally, the module introduces inlet air heating systems and cooling air systems and explains their purpose.
  • Combustion Section
    • This module provides an overview of the combustion section of a gas turbine, including its basic characteristics, theory of operation, and major components. Additionally, the module describes the function and major components of the combustion section’s fuel system.
  • Turbine Section
    • This module introduces the turbine section of the gas turbine system and describes its basic characteristics, theory of operation, and major components. In addition, the module explains the function and major components of the turbine’s exhaust section.
  • Gas Turbine Bearings
    • Thrust and journal bearings are a critical part of the turbine section’s function. This module provides an overview of the purpose of bearings within a combined cycle system, as well as common terminology that applies to bearings. Additionally, this module explains the theory of operation for the different types of bearings.
  • Starting Packages
    • This module introduces the different types of starting packages used for gas turbines, including motor-operated, air- or hydraulic-operated, and the static frequency control system or load commutated inverter (LCI). In addition, the module describes the theory of operation for these packages, as well as the major starting package components.
  • Fuel Systems
    • This module provides an overview of the different types of fuel systems used within the gas turbine, including the fuel gas system, fuel oil system, and water injection system. In addition, the module explains the purpose of each of these systems and describes their major components.
  • Combustion Control and Continuous Emission Monitoring
    • This module provides an overview of the different types of combustion control systems used for gas turbines, including related terminology, theory of operation, and the major components that make up these systems.
  • Gas Turbine Lubricating and Lift Oil Systems
    • This module introduces the lubricating oil, hydraulic oil, and lift oil systems for the gas turbine, including common terminology related to the systems. Additionally, the module identifies and explains the major components that make up these three systems.
  • Gas Turbine Hydraulic Oil Systems
    • This module introduces the lubricating oil, hydraulic oil, and lift oil systems for the gas turbine, including common terminology related to the systems. Additionally, the module identifies and explains the major components that make up these three systems.
  • Fuel Support Systems
    • This module provides an overview of the fuel support systems for a gas turbine, including its basic characteristics, theory of operation, and major components. Additionally, the module describes the function and major components of the fuel support systems.
  • Water Wash Systems
    • The water wash system is used during the cleaning process to improve gas turbine power output and efficiency. This module provides an introduction to the water wash system, including common terminology, as well as describes the major components within the system.

Heat Recovery Steam Generator

  • Heat Recovery Steam Generator Drums and Blowdown Systems
    • The HRSG blowdown system is instrumental in ensuring the boiler water chemistry is kept within specifications with regard to dissolved and suspended solids, pH, conductivity, and silica content. This module introduces the blowdown system, explains its theory of operation, and describes the major components that make up the system.
  • Boiler Water Chemistry
    • Correct chemical control and blowdown ensures efficient operation of the HRSG unit and can prevent costly repairs caused by deposits or corrosion of the HRSG tubes. This module introduces the purpose of water chemistry, describes the parameters that are monitored, and explains the various ways to control each of these parameters.
  • Heat Recovery Steam Generator Basics
    • The HRSG blowdown system is instrumental in ensuring the boiler water chemistry is kept within specifications with regard to dissolved and suspended solids, pH, conductivity, and silica content. This module introduces the blowdown system, explains its theory of operation, and describes the major components that make up the system.
  • Duct Burners and Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems
    • HRSG duct burners provide a means of increasing steam production within the HRSG through the introduction of additional thermal energy, while selective catalytic reduction (SCR) involves the injection of ammonia into the flue gas upstream of a catalyst structure. This module provides an overview of duct burners and SCRs, along with their theory of operation and description of major components.

Balance of Plant

  • Balance of Plant Basics
    • Balance of plant is a grouping of equipment, such as the condenser and the condensate system. The term comes from balancing the amount of feed flow for the HRSG to the amount of steam flow from the HRSG in order to maintain a constant water level in the HP, IP, and LP drums. This module provides an overview of balance of plant basics and describes common terminology applicable to the balance of plant.
  • High-Pressure Steam Systems
    • The high-pressure steam system delivers high-pressure steam generated from the HRSG high-pressure steam drum to the steam turbine. This module provides an overview of the common terminology associated with this system, as well as its theory of operation and the purpose of the system’s major components.
  • Reheat and Intermediate-Pressure Steam Systems
    • This module provides an overview of the intermediate-pressure steam system, including its purpose and the common terminology that applies to the system. Additionally, the module explains the theory of the intermediate-pressure steam system’s operation, as well as the purpose of the major components found within the system.  This module provides an overview of the cold reheat steam system, including its purpose and the common terminology that applies to the system. In addition, the module explains the theory of the cold reheat steam system’s operation, as well as the purpose of the major components found within the system.  This module introduces the hot reheat steam system, describes its purpose, and defines the common terminology that applies to the system. In addition, the module explains the theory of the operation, as well as the purpose of the major components found within the hot reheat steam system.
  • Low-Pressure Steam System
    • The low-pressure steam systems at a combined cycle power plant perform many important functions. This module provides an overview of the common terminology associated with these systems, as well as its theory of operation and the purpose of the system’s major components.
  • Auxiliary Steam Systems
    • This module provides an overview of the auxiliary steam system, including its purpose and the common terminology that applies to the system. Additionally, the module explains the theory of the auxiliary steam system’s operation, as well as the purpose of the major components found within the system.
  • Condensers
    • This module will describe the functions condensers perform at a power plant. It also provides an overview of the common terminology associated with condensers, as well as its theory of operation and the purpose of the system’s major components.
  • Steam Plant Water Systems
    • This module provides an overview of the steam plant water system and introduces its purpose, common terminology, and major components. In addition, the module explains how the condensate and feedwater systems are used in the steam cycle for efficient plant operation.
  • Cooling Water Systems
    • The cooling water systems provide a continuous source of cooling water to various equipment heat exchangers. This module provides an overview of the cooling water system, including the circulating water system and closed-loop cooling water system. The module also discusses the purpose of each system and describes their major components.
  • Processed Water Systems
    • This module provides an overview of the processed water systems found in a combined cycle plant, including the common characteristics and terminology used to describe these systems. In addition, the module explains the theory of operation for processed water systems and discusses how they interconnect.
  • Demineralized Water Systems
    • This module provides an introduction the demineralized water system and describes its purpose and related terminology. Additionally, the module explains the theory of the demineralized water system’s operation, as well as the purpose of the major components found within the system.
  • Reverse Osmosis Water Systems
    • This module provides an overview of reverse osmosis water systems, including their basic characteristics, theory of operation, and major components. Additionally, the module describes the function and major components of reverse osmosis water systems.
  • Wastewater System
    • This module provides an overview of the wastewater system, including its purpose and the common terminology that applies to the system. In addition, the module explains the theory of operation for the wastewater system and describes the purpose of the major components found within the system.
  • Compressed Gas Systems
    • The compressed gas system consists of two separate systems: the nitrogen system and the hydrogen system. This module explains the purpose of these systems as well as the common terminology used when working with them.
  • Compressed Air Systems
    • This module provides an overview of compressed air systems, including their basic characteristics, theory of operation, and major components. Additionally, the module describes the function and major components of compressed air systems.
  • Fire Protection Systems
    • This module provides an overview of the fire protection systems used at a combined cycle power plant, including its basic characteristics, theory of operation, and major components. Additionally, the module describes the function and major components of the fire protection systems.

Steam Turbine

  • Steam Turbine Basics
    • This module introduces the various components found within the steam turbine, as well as the path in which steam flows through them. In addition, the module provides an overview of steam turbine valves, including their major components, and explains how steam turbine blading is designed.
  • Steam Turbine Bearings
    • This module provides an overview of how bearings are used within the steam turbine, as well as the common terminology that applies to bearings. In addition, this module explains the theory of operation for the different types of bearings used within the steam turbine.
  • Gland Seal Steam Systems
    • This module provides an overview of the steam turbine support systems, including common terminology related to the system. In addition, the module introduces the gland/seal steam system and turning gear.
  • Steam Turbine Lubricating Oil Systems
    • This module introduces the steam turbine oil systems used within a combined cycle plant, including the lubricating oil system, hydraulic oil system, and seal oil system. The module provides an overview of the purpose of each system and describes the major components of each.
  • Steam Turbine Hydraulic Oil Systems
    • This module introduces the steam turbine oil systems used within a combined cycle plant, including the lubricating oil system, hydraulic oil system, and seal oil system. The module provides an overview of the purpose of each system and describes the major components of each.

Electrical Power Generation and Distribution

  • Generator Basics
    • This module provides an overview of how generators are used in a combined cycle plant. The module introduces the purpose of generators, common terminology, theory of operation, and major generator components. In addition, the module introduces the different types of generator cooling systems.
  • Generator Cooling Systems
    • Every combined cycle plant has at least one generator. As the generator spins during normal operation, heat builds up in its windings and rotor. This heat needs to be removed to prevent damage to the generator. The purpose of a generator cooling system is to remove this heat from the generator during normal operation. This module introduces the fundamentals of generator cooling systems. 
  • Seal Oil Systems
    • The purpose of the seal oil system in a combined cycle plant is to prevent hydrogen from escaping the generator in an uncontrolled manner and to collect the hydrogen that does escape with the seal oil. By keeping the hydrogen in the generator’s casing, the hydrogen will continue to cool the generator’s windings and rotor and do so in a safe manner. This module explains seal oil systems, common terminology, major components, and its theory of operation.
  • Switchyards and Power Distribution Lines
    • Switchyards provide the foundation and support for the conductors, insulators, circuit breakers, disconnect switches, and other equipment. This module introduces the purpose of switchyards and power distribution lines, as well as common terminology, theory of operation, and major components. In addition, the module provides an overview of the different types of relays used for generator protection.

Power Plant Efficiency

  • Heat Rate Basics
    • Heat rate is the common measure of system efficiency in a power plant. The heat rate is a measure of the combined performance of the gas turbine cycle, the steam turbine cycle, and any other associated auxiliaries. This module introduces the basic characteristics of heat rate and provides instruction on how to calculate heat rate.
  • Major Components’ Effect on Heat Rate
    • This module provides an overview of how the major components of a combined cycle plant affect the heat rate within it. The components covered in this module include: the HRSG, gas turbine, steam turbine, condenser, and other applicable plant equipment.

Circuit Protection

  • Basic Relaying I
    • Large electrical systems rely on protective relays to continuously monitor critical equipment throughout a facility. The sensing quantities and operating characteristics for relays is described in this module.
  • Basic Relaying II
    • Protective relays have a variety of settings based on the level of protection required and the time for actuation of the relay. This module explains the necessary balance of time delay characteristics and zones of protection.
  • Advance Circuit Breakers
    • Large industrial and power generation plants widely use breakers for voltages between 600 V and 30,000 V. This module describes these breaker designs and the associated protective features.

Motors and Motor Control

  • AC Motors
    • AC Motors are widely used throughout industrial facilities and commercial industries. This module will introduce AC motor theory and describe the construction and operations of the most commonly used AC motors.
  • Motor Control Fundamentals
    • Most industrial sized motors require complex equipment for the operational control. This module describes the operation and benefits of the different motor controllers.
  • Motor Protection and Nameplate Data
    • All motors are required to display the operational limitations and protective limits. This information is crucial in establishing a well balanced electrical system, and aid in troubleshooting.
  • Control Circuit Diagrams
    • Large facilities may have hundreds if not thousands of electrical devices that work together to accomplish a single task, as in a conveyor belt system within a distribution center. These devices use sequencing for this complex task, know as control circuits. To easily understand and analyze how a particular circuit operates, the circuit diagrams are used.
  • Motor Starters
    • The selection of the motor starter circuit is critical for the safe and cost effective starting of large electrical motors. This module describes the types of starters used and the purpose for each design.
  • DC Motors
    • DC motors are widely used due to their versatility for applications. This module describes the operating principles, while also providing detail of the DC shunt, series, and compound motors.
  • Electrical Diagrams
    • An electrical circuit for motors may contain thousands of wires with dozens of inputs and outputs. This module provides the necessary understanding of control devices and the common electrical symbols used for electrical diagrams.

Transformers

  • Transformers
    • Every industrial facility has thousands of instruments that provide valuable operational information of electrical and mechanical equipment. These instruments receive power from dedicated instrumentation transformers.
  • Power Transformers I
    • Power transformers are widely used in power generation plants and distribution substations. The information that is required on the transformer nameplate distinguishes amongst the many different designs available. This module will describe the different designs and the nameplate information.
  • Power Transformers II
    • Power transformers require precise testing upon installation and periodically to ensure proper operation. This module introduces some common tests and the purpose behind each.

Variable Frequency Drives

  • VFD Fundamentals
    • Variable frequency drives, or VFDs, are widely used to provide variable speed operation to AC motors that normally operate at a standard speed. This module explains the functional operation, methods of interfacing, and the advantages and disadvantages of the various types of VFDs.
  • VFD Installation and Programming
    • While there are many manufacturers for VFDs, the installation, and initial programming is critical. This module introduces the viewer to some standard requirements while reinforcing the use of the manufacturers’ provided manuals.
  • VFD Troubleshooting
    • Troubleshooting of VFDs can be very complex and time consuming. This module provides the common fault and alarm indications, types, and troubleshooting methods.

Overview of Water Treatment

  • Overview of Water Treatment
    • The water treatment system is a collection of subsystems used to produce makeup water at a sufficient quality and volume for boiler and cooling system operation at a facility. Water is brought into the system as wastewater from a local water treatment plant, filtered and treated to meet quality requirements used to support site makeup requirements, then returned to the water treatment facility. The water first arrives into the raw water system as treated wastewater or grey water. The water is put through the clarification processes to remove suspended solids and increase clarity, and sent to the service water system.

Raw Water Treatment

  • Clarification
    • The raw water system receives treated water, or grey water, from a water treatment plant. The incoming water is clarified to remove suspended solids and stored onsite where it is used by the service, fire, and demineralized water systems at the facility. The solids are removed, dewatered and collected for efficient removal.
  • Disinfection
    • One of the cleansing processes in the treatment of safe water is called disinfection. Disinfection is the selective destruction of pathogenic organisms, not to be confused with sterilization. Sterilization is the complete destruction of all organisms. In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency is responsible for setting drinking water standards and ensuring their enforcement. The Safe Drinking Water Act and its amendments contain specific maximum allowable levels of substances known to be hazardous to human health.
  • Sedimentation
    • The purposes of the sedimentation process are to remove suspended solids, or particles, which are denser, or heavier, than water and reduce the load on the filters. The suspended solids may be their natural state, such as bacteria, clays or silts, modified or preconditioned by prior treatment in the coagulation-flocculation process to form floc, or precipitated impurities, such as hardness and iron precipitates formed by the addition of chemicals.

Basic Water Purification

  • Media Filtration
    • Filtration is an important process in water treatment systems. It is the physical and chemical process in which impurities are removed from the water by passing it through a substance. 
  • Ultrafiltration
    • Ultrafiltration refers to a type of membrane filtration in which a liquid passes through a semipermeable membrane with a very fine pore structure to remove very small particles. The pore sizes of ultrafiltration membranes range from 0.01 to 0.001 microns. This is small enough to remove many kinds of bacteria, viruses, and high molecular weight molecules, such as proteins.
  • Water Softening
    • The presence of certain ions in water causes problems such as buildup of limescale, fouling, galvanic corrosion, and interference with the action of soaps. Water softening is the removal of those ions. The resulting water extends plumbing and equipment lifetime and is more compatible with soap.

Advanced Water Purification

  • Electronic Deionization
    • Electronic deionization, or EDI, removes dissolved impurities by combining two water treatment methods: electrodialysis and ion exchange. EDI produces very high quality water without chemical regeneration. The absence of chemicals has made it a popular method for obtaining the ultra-pure deionized water required for numerous industrial processes.
  • Resin Bed Demineralizers
    • Water treatment is vital to minimizing the effects caused by impurities and foreign particles, which include fouling and corrosion that result in lower system efficiency and equipment failure. Resin bed demineralizers are commonly used in water treatment processes to remove impurities from water through the exchange of ions between the feedwater and a solid substance, called a resin.
  • Reverse Osmosis
    • Hemodialysis patients are at risk of death whenever there are contaminants in the dialysis water. Reverse osmosis, also referred to as RO, offers a way of achieving the desired water quality. Applications worldwide include desalination and power plants as well as food and pharmaceutical industries, which require water of a specific quality. In the last decades, RO has become a popular water treatment technique; therefore, understanding RO systems is important for anyone working in industry. This module discusses the principles of reverse osmosis as well as its advantages and disadvantages.

Drinking Water Treatment

  • Corrosion Control Treatment
    • Corrosion in water distribution systems can impact consumers’ health, water treatment costs, and the aesthetics of finished water. Techniques for controlling corrosion include distribution and plumbing system design considerations, water quality modifications, corrosion inhibitors, cathodic protection, and coatings and linings. This module will focus on water quality modifications through chemical treatments and corrosion inhibitors for corrosion control.
  • Drinking Water Disinfection
    • The purpose of disinfection is to remove, kill, or inactivate most microorganisms, including pathogenic bacteria, in a raw water supply. Residual disinfection is the process of maintaining a disinfectant level in the treated or finished water supply throughout a system to ensure that regrowth of pathogenic microorganisms will not occur.
  • Drinking Water Distribution Systems
    • The primary purpose of a water distribution network is to deliver adequate volumes of safe drinking water to system customers at adequate pressures. Another important purpose of a distribution network is to provide adequate fire hydrant flows to areas of the system. 
  • Drinking Water Fundamentals
    • Water is essential to life. A human can only survive 5-7 days without water. However, consuming contaminated water can cause disease and death. Water can be contaminated by suspended material, chemical contaminants, and biological contaminants Uncontaminated, natural water sources are rare. Most water sources are contaminated by natural impurities, and man-made impurities.
  • Filtration I
    • The purposes of the filtration include: compliance with treatment technique regulatory requirements; targeting impurities; and producing safe and aesthetically pleasing drinking water. The type of filtration used for water treatment depends on the initial quality of the raw water to be treated, the size of the facility, and the customer base served. 
  • Filtration II
    • The purposes of the filtration include: compliance with treatment technique regulatory requirements; targeting impurities; and producing safe and aesthetically pleasing drinking water. The type of filtration used for water treatment depends on the initial quality of the raw water to be treated, the size of the facility, and the customer base served. 
  • Inorganics Removal
    • Water containing non-degradable inorganic pollutants usually comes from both industrial and residential sewage, commercial sources, and other industries where waste is produced. Some of these biologics could break down naturally if given enough time; however, with the volume of waste produced in this day in age, processes have been developed to help nature maintain the balance needed to mitigate health concerns. Many of the techniques used to treat the non-degradable inorganic pollutants and biological methods are favored because of their efficiency and economic properties.
  • Organics Removal
    • Water containing degradable organic pollutants usually comes from both industrial and residential sewage, commercial sources, and other industries where waste is produced. These biologics could break down in the naturally given enough time, however with the volume of organics produced at this day in age, processes have been developed to help nature maintain the balance needed to mitigate health concerns. Many of the techniques used to treat the degradable organic pollutants, and biological methods are favored because of their efficiency and economic properties.

Wastewater

  • Basics of Chemical Feed Systems
    • Chemical feed systems come in a variety of types including dry, liquid, gas, and polymer feed systems. They all perform the same overall function of adding chemicals to the wastewater to perform the required treatment.
  • Disinfection and Chlorination
    • Disinfection and chlorination is an important part of the wastewater treatment. The raw wastewater is teeming with bacterial and parasitic diseases which cannot be released into the public waterways.
  • Effluent Polishing
    • As more demands are placed on our water resources, the need to have cleaner water is becoming more important.  Also, as more water users discharge their wastewater to the water resources, the quality of the effluent from each user needs to be cleaner to prevent any further reduction in the quality of the receiving water resources.  Consequently, the discharge permits that specify the quality of the effluent discharged by the permit holder now contain more stringent conditions. 
  • Introduction to Wastewater Treatment
    • Wastewater treatment is the process used to convert wastewater into an effluent that can be either returned to the water cycle with minimal environmental issues or reused for residential or industrial purposes. Treatment is the act of removing impurities from water being treated. The treatment of wastewater occurs at a wastewater treatment plant.
  • Laboratory Overview
    • The laboratory serves a crucial function in the wastewater treatment process. It increases the efficiency in every part of the process and verifies that the process is removing the required amount of waste in the water. 
  • Odor Control
    • Odor generation is a common problem at wastewater treatment plants. In addition to the problems odors can create for personnel and equipment, odors can adversely impact the community surrounding the treatment plant.  Not only is this a problem for the community, but it also puts a strain on treatment plant resources to solve the problem and appease the community. However, it must not be forgotten that controlling odors is an important community-relations task that must be addressed by treatment plant personnel. 
  • Rotating Biological Contractors
    • Rotating Biological Contactors, or RBCs, are an example of a Fixed Film process, which is a biological treatment process where the microorganisms attach themselves to structures known as media. The biodegradable organics are removed from the wastewater as it flows past and over the media containing the attached microorganisms.
  • Activated Sludge I
    • Activated sludge consists of sludge particles, teeming with living organisms and produced in either raw or settled wastewater by the growth of organisms (which include bacteria), in aeration tanks where dissolved oxygen is present. 
  • Activated Sludge II
    • Modifications to the process can be made in an existing system or in the design process of a new system. Potential operational benefits of modifying the conventional activated sludge system include; increasing organic loading, providing additional nutrients required for proper treatment, accommodating flow rate or organic loading that varies seasonally and achieving nutrient removal.  Another reason for modification of the process is to provide a treatment system that is suitable to the available site conditions. For example, extended aeration systems, especially oxidation ditch configurations, require more space than conventional systems. Alternately, where space is limited, a pure oxygen system or a complete mix configuration would be more suitable.
  • Solid Handling and Disposal
    • Solids from the primary clarifier (primary sludge) and secondary clarifier (secondary sludge) contain large volumes of water. This increased amount of water increases the overall volume of sludge that must be handled, increasing the size of the equipment, such as digesters, that must be installed. To decrease this volume, the sludge can be thickened. Essentially, this results in an increase in the concentration of solids and a decrease in the total volume that must be handled in subsequent processes.
  • Supplemental Removal
    • Phosphorus and nitrogen are essential nutrients for algae growth. The discharge of phosphorus and nitrogen, along with other essential nutrients, stimulates algae growth in the streams receiving the wastewater discharge. Algae causes taste and odor problems, is aesthetically unpleasing and, most importantly, creates enormous oxygen demand when algal bloom dies off. Depletion of oxygen caused by the dying algal blooms is responsible for fish kills and other significant disruptions of the aquatic environment. For these reasons, regulatory agencies often regulate the amount of phosphorus allowed in wastewater discharges.
  • Treatment Ponds and Lagoons
    • Ponds and lagoons have been used for hundreds of years and for a variety of purposes. In ancient times, organic wastes were intentionally added to ponds to stimulate the growth of algae, which acted as a food supply to increase fish populations for harvesting. Initially, the first wastewater collection systems simply discharged wastes into the nearest body of water. The volume of wastewater increased as populations increased, and clean water bodies were negatively impacted. The need to isolate wastewater from other water sources became apparent. Therefore, treatment ponds were created to protect clean water sources by separating wastewater.
  • Trickling Filters
    • Trickling Filters are a unique type of fixed film biological treatment. In a trickling filter, the micro- organisms used to treat the wastewater are attached, or fixed, to a medium as they contact the wastewater. Wastewater applied to a trickling filter has already passed through a mechanical bar screen and/or primary clarifiers. Wastewater is distributed over the top of the medium and slowly trickles through it. The biological growth is attached to the media. This is in contrast to “suspended growth” biological treatment, where the micro-organisms float freely in the wastewater. Trickling filter effluent always passes through a clarifier to allow for capture of solids generated as a result of treating the wastewater. Although these units are referred to as “Trickling Filters,” no physical filtration actually occurs. Instead, contaminants are removed by biological processes.
  • Wastewater Collection Systems
    • The collection of wastewater is the first step in the wastewater treatment process. A variety of methods are used throughout the world to collect and transport wastewater to a treatment facility.
  • Sampling
    • In order to analyze a sample, it must first be collected. While this may seem obvious, the importance of collecting a representative sample cannot be overstated. If the sample is not representative, the analysis is worse than useless; it could be misleading and result in changes in treatment that are unnecessary and potentially damaging to the treatment process.  The most important part of the analytical process is the collection of representative samples. Many lab errors are the result of improper sampling. The goal of sample collection is to collect a sample that is truly representative of the conditions that exist at the time of collection.

Basic Distribution and Warehousing

  • Distribution Center Overview
    • This course covers the process in which a product makes its way from the vendor to the market and the basics of distribution. This course also covers the layout of the distribution centers as well as the modules associated with those centers.
  • Conveyor Basics
    • This course covers different types of conveyors, such as gravity-driven, flat belt, and live roller conveyors, that are used in distribution centers. This course also covers specialty devices such as skewed wheel belt sorters and shoe-type sorters as well as live roller and high-speed junctions and curves.
  • Facility Maintenance
    • This course provides an overview on general facility maintenance, electrical safety, and the maintenance of lighting systems. This course also teaches the compressed air components and their components associated with facility maintenance and the various plumbing systems. Lastly, this course discusses the chilled water systems maintenance and components and the fire main system maintenance and components.
  • Fork Trucks I
    • The course introduces you to the safety considerations and general work practices of fork trucks including: Lockout/Tagout, battery maintenance, capacitive circuits, and hydraulic system safety. This course also covers electrical systems, schematic diagrams, and diagnostic tools for fork trucks.
  • Fork Trucks II
    • This course covers the maintenance, servicing, selection and replacement of battery systems of fork trucks. The miscellaneous electrical control components and steering and guidance systems of fork trucks. This course will also cover the different hydraulic systems and break systems of fork trucks.

Intermediate Distribution and Warehousing

  • Battery Charging System I
    • This course introduces you to batteries and their chargers, the charging system components, battery types, battery construction and the safety precautions associated with them. This course also covers the explosive gasses associated with batteries as well as the safety measures to be taken to contain a spill when a spill occurs.
  • Battery Charging System II
    • This course covers the battery charging system and the maintenance required. In addition, this course covers the battery charging system components, troubleshooting techniques, and the steps necessary to recycle of the battery.
  • Photoeye Installation
    • This course covers types and operation of photosensing devices. This course also covers the various connections of the photoeye.
  • Pi-Touch
  • Sorter Hardware
    • This course gives an overview of induction and merge conveyor equipment, the sortation conveyor equipment, power and control apparatus.
  • Sorter Operations
    • This course covers the components in the induction section, the process of scanning and the process of sortation.
  • Switchgears
    • This course covers the fundamentals of switchgear, the control and operational practices, the functions of close and trip, fault and overcurrent protective devices, and electrical bus systems.

Advanced Distribution and Warehousing

  • AGV Operation
    • This course covers the manual controls of an AGV, the manual pendant, and the steps taken to initialize the AGV. The operation modes of the AGV are also discussed which include, the modes of operation and the manual dispatch mode on the AGV.
  • AGV Overview
    • This course gives an overview of AGV's, its orientation, major components, and major systems. This course also covers navigation and guidance of AGV's including the inertial navigation, the terms associated with the navigation and guidance, the magnet sensor, various magnets, and the guidance feedback system.
  • AGV Preventive Maintenance
    • This module will cover the different types of maintenance associated with an AGV, including: Daily maintenance, 200-hour maintenance, 500-hour maintenance, 1000-hour maintenance, 2000-hour maintenance and shutting down the AGV. This course will also give an overview of the lift operations of an AGV and the power up of an AGV.
  • AGV Safety
    • This course covers the indications, emergency stop operation and locations, beacon and running lights, audible warning mechanism, and alarms associated with AGV safety. This course will also discuss the different types of sensors such as: Door interlocks, side sensor, and pulse laser sensor. In addition, vehicle safety and an overview of the interface module will be covered, as well as the VSIM and its control board.
  • AKL Cranes
    • This course gives an overview of AKL cranes including, the functions, glossary of terms associated with AKL cranes, operation, and axes of motion for AKL cranes. This course also discusses the components and support systems for AKL cranes as well as the modes of operation. Preventative maintenance will also be covered along with fault identification, the types of faults, and the most common types of faults.
  • ASRS Cranes
    • This course gives an overview of ASRS cranes, including the construction, operation and operating modes of ASRS cranes; the load storage and retrieval of these cranes as well as the ancillary equipment and applications. This course also covers the missions of ASRS cranes and the preventative maintenance necessary.
  • Barcode Scanners
    • This course covers the types, functions, and principles of operation of barcode scanners and laser scanners. This course also covers the installation, maintenance practices, and laser safety of barcode scanners. Lastly, this course discusses the setup and programming of barcode scanners and the networks associated with barcode scanners.

Building Management Principles

  • Risk Management
    • This course covers general liability as it relates to facility risk management, explains what attractive nuisances are, and describes risk management. This course also explains the differences in active and passive fire protection systems while, discusses management's responsibility to minimize fire risks, provides an overview of the Life Safety Code, and lays out the components of an egress system.
  • Preventive Maintenance
    • This course provides an introduction to preventive maintenance and its advantages. This course also covers preventive maintenance programs and computerized maintenance management systems.
  • Cleaning Services
    • This course covers common supplies and processes to cleaning facilities.
  • Chemical Storage
    • This course gives an overview on the procedures of storing chemicals and storage time limits which will minimize accidents and increases life of the chemicals.
  • Facility Management
    • This course covers the purpose of building codes, the identification of sections of a facility that have specific code requirements, and defines the role of a facility manager as it relates to facility security. Also identified are types of physical security measures used to prevent unauthorized access to a facility and discuss plans related to preparing for a natural or man-made disaster.

Building Utilities and Boilers

  • Combustion Fundamentals
    • This course covers the fire triangle, basic combustion process, operation for certain burners, and the purpose of burner turndown.
  • Boiler Types and Classifications
    • This course covers multiple kinds of boiler systems and what differentiates them from each other.
  • Boiler Operations
    • This course covers boiler system operations including: startup and shutdown of the system and steam and hot water control settings.
  • Boiler Systems
    • This course outlines boiler system terminology and components. This course also covers the purposes of boiler room valves and the types of data that can be found on the valve.
  • Boiler Blowdown
    • This course covers the purposes, operation, and different types of boiler blowdown systems.
  • Boiler System Controls
    • This course introduces typical boiler system controls which provide safe operation of a boiler. 
  • Boiler Management Control Systems
    • This course covers flame safeguard systems and different type of flame detectors, along with describing the typical sequence of operation. This course also explains how the control system will react when it experiences certain flame loss conditions along with the importance of keeping a history/troubleshooting log for the equipment.

General Inspection and Repairs

  • Cleaning Drains
    • This course covers the various methods for cleaning different kinds of clogged drains.
  • Faucet Repairs
    • This course covers repairing ball-type single-lever, cartridge-type, and different types of noisy/leaking faucets.
  • Pipe Repairs and Replacement
    • This course covers the repair and replacement of leaking pipes, leaking toilets and urinals. This course also provides the steps to take in order to solder copper pipes, cut pipe, and thread pipe.
  • Basic Masonry
    • In this course you will learn the basics of Masonry tools and the methods of repairing for which these tools are used.
  • Drywalls, Doors and Locks
    • This course covers basic carpentry, drywall and door repairs, and the correct process for extracting a broken key from a lock.
  • HVAC Fundamentals
    • This course gives an overview of the purpose of HVAC systems, the equipment and methods used to heat, cool, and handle the systems, and the different types of HVAC systems.
  • Basic HVAC Maintenance
    • In this course you will learn the basics of HVAC systems, their operation, and maintenance. This course also covers problems and solutions for window-mounted units along with preventive maintenance.
  • Elevators I
    • This course gives an introduction to the different types of elevators, servicing these elevators, the ownership responsibilities, and the fireman's recall system.
  • Elevators II
    • This course gives an overview on the required elevator tests and codes along with the accessibility standards that must be met.
  • Overhead Door Controls
    • This course covers overhead door controls, the manual operation of the overhead doors, identifying which components require routine lubrication, and adjusting a door control limit switch.
  • Roofing, Walls and Balconies
    • This course will cover important inspection techniques of roofing, walls, and balconies. This includes balcony inspections, roofing materials and their usage and various rooftop tanks.

Building Electrical Maintenance

  • Overview of Electrical Systems
    • This course provides an overview of electrical systems and will identify the various facility power distribution systems and equipment, the safety of electrical equipment, working space around electric equipment, the identification of disconnecting means and circuits, and guarding live parts. This course will also cover how the power grid works and discuss power generation and power transmission.
  • Electrical Control Circuits
    • This course covers control circuit diagrams and how to differentiate between the different types. This course also explains control circuit logic and the related terms.
  • Electrical Tools and Test Equipment
    • This course covers common electrician's tools and the standard types of meters used for measuring current, voltage, and resistance.
  • Electrical Distribution Components
    • Building maintenance requires a basic understanding of the components responsible for the distribution of electricity throughout a building or facility. This module discusses different types and sizes of conductors, raceways and conduit, as wellas the differences between a circuit breaker panel, switchgear, and motor control center.
  • Receptacles and Lighting
    • This course introduces common electrical terms, the methods of determining types of conductors, and conduits and raceways.

Industrial Maintenance Technician

$250.00