The purpose of this procedure is to establish a comprehensive lockout/tagout program that is designed to prevent injuries caused by unexpected activation of hazardous energies including any unintended motion, energization, startup, or release of stored energy.
This procedure establishes expectations regarding safe methods of controlling energy during servicing and/or maintenance of machines and equipment and is consistent with corporate guidelines.
This procedure applies to all operations. It is also a requirement for all contractors and vendors as outlined herein.
Below is a listing of typical activities in which energy control procedures apply (alternative methods can be used for performing work involving the control of hazardous energy, provided it is consistent with the requirements of this policy):
Note: Testing and troubleshooting are normally done by qualified technicians using proper PPE and voltage-rated tools while equipment is energized.
The guideline addresses the following key elements:
The appendices provide full-size templates to be duplicated and maintained by maintenance.
Lockout/Tagout Procedure All Distribution Centers
The attached procedure is the minimum standard that applies to all maintenance operations in all distribution centers.
Factors Used To Determine DC Compliance
The following are the factors that will be used to determine DC compliance with this process during division safety audits:
Affected Team Member: Any team member whose job requires him/her to operate or use a machine or equipment on which servicing or maintenance is being performed under lockout/tagout, or whose job requires him/her to work in an area in which such servicing or maintenance is being performed
Authorized Team Member: Any team member who is authorized by management to lockout/tagout a piece of equipment to perform servicing or maintenance on equipment; an affected team member becomes an authorized team member when that team members duties include performing servicing or maintenance on that piece of equipment or machinery
Designee: A person designated in writing by the distribution center manager, maintenance manager, or operations manager to perform specific functions
Energized: Connected to an energy source or containing residual or stored energy
Energy Isolating Device: A mechanical device that physically prevents the transmission or release of energy, including but not limited to the following:
Note: Pushbuttons, selector switches, and other control circuit type devices are not energy-isolating devices.
Lockout: Placement of a lockout device on an energy isolating device in accordance with established procedures, ensuring that the energy isolating device and the equipment being controlled cannot be operated until the lockout device is removed
Lockout Device: Device that uses a positive means, such as a lock, to hold an energy isolating device in the safe position and prevent the energizing of a machine or equipment; included are blank flanges and bolted slip blinds.
Zero Energy Procedure: A procedure for eliminating energy from equipment and machinery prior to maintenance, repair, servicing, or modification that contains the following identification of all energy sources:
Normal Production Operations: Utilization of a machine or equipment to perform its intended production function
Other Team Member: Any team member not covered under authorized or affected but still needs a general awareness of the lockout/tagout program
Qualified Technician: Person who has completed a formal program of training (either in a classroom or on-the-job) and qualification and is familiar with the:
Safe Position: The specific position of an energy isolating device that prevents unexpected energization of the equipment (i.e., open/closed, de-activated, blocked, removed); safe position of energy isolating devices must be identified with the equipment-specific procedure
Servicing and/or Maintenance: Workplace activities such as constructing, installing, setting-up, adjusting, inspecting, modifying, maintaining, and/or servicing machines or equipment; includes lubrication, cleaning or jam clearing of machines or equipment, and making adjustments or tool changes, where team members may be exposed to the unexpected energization or startup of the equipment or release of hazardous energy
Shift: A shift is considered a normally scheduled shift plus any authorized overtime
Setting-Up: Any work performed to prepare a machine or equipment to perform its normal production operation
Tagout: Placement of a tagout device on an energy isolating device in accordance with established procedures to indicate that the energy isolating device and the equipment being controlled may not be operated until the tagout device is removed
Tagout Device: Prominent warning device, such as a tag and a means of attachment, which can be securely fastened to an energy isolating device in accordance with established procedures to indicate that the energy isolating device and the equipment being controlled may not be operated until the tagout device is removed
Test: Temporary re-energization of equipment and removal of lockout/tagout devices to check operation or positioning prior to completion of the work; allowed only during the limited time necessary and only on the affected components; after completion of the testing, the equipment must be de-energized and all lockout/tagout requirements resumed
Try: Physical act of trying to start or energize equipment immediately after lockout/tagout has been completed to verify isolation and release of potential energy; person qualified to operate the equipment or machinery must accomplish this operation
Verification: Process of proving the lockout/tagout is effective, identical to "try"; it is an OSHA required step
Zero Energy State (ZES): Physical state of equipment and machinery following complete de-energization and verification implementation of the lockout/tagout/try procedure
It is mandatory that all personnel comply with the restrictions and limitations of this procedure. Failure to comply will result in disciplinary action, up to and including, dismissal or contract termination.
No individual will attempt to start, energize, or use a piece of equipment that has been locked out or attempt to remove a lockout device and tag under this program, except as provided by this procedure.
When a task requiring access to a machine, equipment, or process requires power, alternative methods of energy control must be used on a risk assessment and will provide effective personnel protection. An electrical safety plan, if applicable, must be used provided these plans have been developed by team members performing the task and have been reviewed and approved by the maintenance manager or his/her designee in accordance with Electrical Safe Work Practices guidelines.
All lockout(s) will require a general or individual lockout/tagout locks and a "DANGER-DO NOT OPERATE" tag to be applied to the equipment at the energy isolating device. Lockout/tagout devices at a DC will be standardized in at least one of the following criteria: color, shape, size, or specific markings and will be used for no other purpose other than lockout/tagout. A "DANGER-DO NOT OPERATE" tag can only be used without a lockout lock when a lockout device cannot be physically applied to an energy-isolating device. In these situations, effort must be made to identify a method to reconfigure the energy isolating device so that a lock can be applied or to otherwise secure the device (e.g., by using chains, cable ties, etc.) in an effective isolating position. All DCs must ensure that all new electrical devices purchased at the DC are compatible with the standard lockout/tagout devices.
NOTE: After January 2, 1990, whenever replacement or major repair, renovation, or modification of a machine or equipment is performed, and whenever new machines or equipment are installed, energy isolating devices for such machine or equipment will be designed to accept a lockout device.
NOTE: Warded locks are not as secure as pin-tumbler locks, and warded locks can be removed using the wrong key. If a lock set is used, the master key for the locks must be destroyed.
All lockout/tagout locks and lockout devices must be capable of withstanding exposure to the associated work environment conditions. Tags will be attached to the lock or equipment with a material having the general design and characteristics equivalent to a one-piece, all environment tolerant nylon cable tie, which is non-reusable and attachable by hand. The tie must be self-locking, and require a minimum unlocking strength of at least 50 lbs. for release.
Each authorized team member will receive at least two lockout/tagout locks and/or have access to tags and protective materials and hardware required (hasps, cable ties, chains, etc.) to perform isolation of energy.
All equipment energy isolating devices will be clearly identified in a uniform manner. They will be labeled or marked, unless they are located and arranged so that their purpose is clearly evident. The identification must be of a consistent format within each DC and will include the following:
For machines, equipment, or systems that are out of service and there is no short-term plan to place the equipment back into service, red "DANGER-DO NOT OPERATE" tags CANNOT be used to keep the equipment out of service. A separate yellow "CAUTION-DO NOT OPERATE" tag must be used instead.
When electrical system grounds need to be applied, they will be the last devices applied and the first devices to be removed from the lockout/tagout. Only qualified electrical technicians will apply grounding devices. If grounding devices are used, they will be listed on the lockout/tagout form as energy isolating devices.
No team members are authorized to work on switchgear or voltages above 480 VAC. Such work should be performed by an outside contractor. Lockout/tagout applies to all sources of energy, including, but not limited to, the energy sources listed below:
Primary and Secondary Energy Sources
Stored Energy Sources
Each DC will develop equipment-specific lockout/tagout procedures for each individual piece of equipment except when ALL the following criteria are met:
NOTE: The allowance of this exception requires a thorough review of the equipment and verification of the conditions listed. The intent of the equipment-specific lockout/tagouts is to create a master list of all possible isolation points that can be referenced for all future lockout/tagouts.
Each equipment-specific lockout/tagout procedure will contain the following elements:
DCs will use an equipment-specific lockout/tagout procedure template or similar (provided it meets the requirement of this policy). By completing this form, the requirement for developing equipment-specific lockout/tagout has been satisfied for that piece of equipment.
Equipment-specific lockout/tagout procedures must be readily accessible to authorized team members (kept in the maintenance office files, attached to work orders, attached to the equipment where feasible, computer database, etc.) and will be developed in local language.
Alternate means must be in place to make these procedures readily available in the event of loss of accessibility due to flood, loss of power, fire, etc. Alternate means include:
When service and maintenance requiring de-energization of a system/equipment is performed, and more than one authorized team member is involved in the maintenance action, a procedure that affords all the authorized team members a level of protection equivalent to that provided by the implementation of a personal lockout/tagout device is required.
NOTE: Use of a Group Lockbox or "GLB" is an acceptable method of meeting this requirement. Padlocks, keys, and tags are stored in the "GLB". It is removed and used to lockout the equipment. The authorized team member in charge of the work removes this padlock and tag, places them on the equipment, and then locks the key in the "GLB" using their personal lock. Each individual involved in the maintenance action places their individual lock on the lockbox. The key locked in the "GLB" can only be removed once ALL of the personal locks have been removed from the "GLB".
Group lockout/tagout devices will be used in accordance with this procedure including, but not limited to, the following specific requirements:
When a multiple-hole hasp lockout/tagout device is used to accommodate the number of authorized team members involved, the following steps are required:
NOTE: The authorized team member in charge of the maintenance action must walk down the area of the just-completed work to ensure the area has been properly cleared and guards have been replaced, that the area has been cleaned, and that it is ready for service. In addition, affected team members are to be notified prior to the start of the job and prior to restoration of the equipment.
The following steps must be followed by authorized team members in situations when lockout/tagout devices must be temporarily removed from a machine or piece of equipment for testing or positioning of the machine/equipment:
A risk assessment will be documented for any devices not capable of accepting a lock.
NOTE: A durable deterrent in the form of a chain, cable tie, or other appropriate device will be used to secure the energy-isolating device when practical.
After January 2, 1990, whenever replacement, major repair, renovation, or modification of a machine or equipment is performed, and whenever new machines or equipment are installed, energy isolating devices for such machine or equipment will be designed to accept a lockout device.
Additional measures must also be taken to demonstrate full team member protection, such as the removal of an isolating circuit element, blocking of a controlling switch, opening of an extra disconnecting device, or the removal of a valve handle to reduce the likelihood of inadvertent energization.
Team members must be trained to recognize the limitations of tags.
Red tags applied without locks will only be allowed on equipment specifically identified by the hazard analysis that CANNOT be physically locked out in some manner. Every effort should be expended to avoid this situation. All authorized team members must be informed of the specific equipment that cannot be locked out, and the training program must be modified to ensure all team members understand the meaning of a red tag on a piece of equipment without a lock. The maintenance manager must be informed to facilitate a request for modification. Additional isolation is required for this type of protection to be applied.
These special conditions of nonlock equipment will be clearly described on the equipment-specific lockout/tagout procedure.
When tasks specified are not servicing and/or maintenance activities and are routine, repetitive, and integral to the process, alternative methods of energy control may be used. The alternative methods are based on risk assessment and will provide effective personal protection.
Minor tool changes and/or adjustment, setup, jam clearing, part location, and cleaning are examples of tasks for which alternative methods may be used unless the following conditions exist:
Alternative methods are acceptable if the reason for operator intervention (i.e., performance of the task) is to sustain the machine, equipment, and process or circuit continuity within the nominal performance range and output quality. This usually occurs when the machine, equipment, process, or circuit is operating normally, and the need for periodic service is predictable based on operating experience and product demands. Also, the tasks do not require that the machine, equipment, process, or circuits be taken out of the operational mode to accomplish them.
When equipment to be worked on is plug- and cord-connected, it is not necessary to attach a lockout/tagout locks and red "DANGER-DO NOT OPERATE" tags to the plug after it is removed if both of the following are true:
a. The cord is visible to and under the exclusive control of the authorized team member, and
b. The plug and cord equipment has a single source of electrical energy.
If one or both of the above mentioned conditions fails to exist, then the plug must be locked in a plug canister or similar lockout device, and a lockout/tagout lock and a "DANGER-DO NOT OPERATE" tag must be attached to the plug.
The maximum permitted duration for lockout/tagout is a normal shift (plus any authorized overtime) or the duration of the task, whichever is shorter. Lockout/tagouts lasting longer than one shift require an Immediate Hand-Off between the current authorized team member and the oncoming authorized team member.
As part of shift turnover, oncoming and off-going authorized team members must complete a face-to-face hand-off. The maintenance manager or his/her designee will list all ongoing lockout/tagouts when a group lockout/tagout is in place or by an authorized team member during a regular lockout/tagout.
Upon turnover, the responsibility for active lockout/tagouts is automatically transferred to the oncoming authorized team member.
The current authorized team member must remove his/her individual lock, and the oncoming authorized team member must immediately replace it with his/her own individual lock. The oncoming authorized team member must verify the lockout/tagout is still effective by performing the verification steps contained in the equipment-specific lockout/tagout procedure.
If the equipment will be out of service for an extended period of time, the authorized team member must remove their personnel lock and replace it with a general lock with a "Caution Do Not Operate" tag attached. The key for this lock should be placed under the control of maintenance manager or his/her designee until it is needed to remove the lock for replacement with an authorized team member personnel lock and "Danger Do Not Operate" tag when work on the equipment starts again. The maintenance manager or his/her designee will use standard key control procedure for this key, and an annotation of the date the general lock is used will be made in the remarks section of the work order generated for the task.
In case the signer of the tag cannot be located, the maintenance manager or his/her designee may authorize the removal of the lockout/tagout lock(s) and red "DANGER-DO NOT OPERATE" tag(s) after all possible attempts have been made to locate the team member. The attempts made to locate the team member, and the fact that someone other than the authorized team member removed the lock must be documented by using the "Emergency Tag/Lock Removal" form.
Upon his/her return to the site and before resuming work at the site, the signer of the tag must be notified by his/her supervisor that the lockout/tagout has been released.
Prior to the contractor performing any work involving the control of hazardous energy, the DC will provide a copy of this procedure to every contractor.
Contractors will be subject to the lockout/tagout procedure.
All outside contractors will be briefed on this procedure and on any special or unique hazards that are related to the equipment that the contractor will be working on. It is a policy to require all outside contractors to be familiar with, and follow the requirements of this procedure. The DC and contractor will each designate a representative responsible for determining the relationship, responsibilities, and obligations regarding hazardous energy control before starting work or providing service.
All contractors will verify that their team members performing work under lockout/tagout have been trained to meet regulatory requirements. Any additional requests for documentation will be promptly submitted by the contractor to work at a DC.
Authorized team members should isolate equipment and systems; however, the contractor or their designated team members MUST be present while the isolation is performed. Contractors or their designated team members will place their own personal locks and tags on the appropriate lockbox or energy isolating device that authorized team member has locked out and be afforded the opportunity to verify the effectiveness of the lockout/tagout. In the event of an isolate requirement where the contractor is more knowledgeable of the equipment or system, for example the distribution switchgear, they should be allowed to perform the isolation, however a authorized team member MUST be present to witness the isolation.
All team members will receive lockout/tagout training in accordance with the training program requirements. This training will be tracked by Human Resources.
In addition to maintaining the training records, Human Resources, the maintenance manager or designee will maintain the original attendance sheets and a copy of the training materials in a central location. The training records will be reviewed at least annually to identify individuals requiring refresher training.
An annual audit of the LOTO procedure will be conducted by the maintenance function manager or his/her designee and the safety process manager and reported to the SMAT. The audit will be documented on lockout/tagout audit form or similar. Each audit form will be maintained for at least five years after the performance of the audit.
While conducting the lockout/tagout audit:
If, during a periodic audit, a discrepancy or procedural inadequacy is found, steps will immediately be taken to determine the reason for, and the corrective action necessary to remedy the discrepancy. A record will be maintained of all findings.
The distribution center manager or his/her designee will certify that the periodic audits have been completed.
Risk assessment is an analytical tool consisting of a number of discrete steps intended to ensure that hazards are properly identified and the means to control those hazards are identified.
Identify Hazards: Hazards associated with each piece of equipment, such as mechanical, electrical, thermal, pneumatic, hydraulic, radiation, residual or stored energy, motion, fuels, and human factors should be considered. Consideration should include human error, management system deficiencies, and foreseeable improper use of equipment.
The risk assessment is the responsibility of the maintenance department to complete with assistance from the safety. Maintenance personnel performing the risk assessment must be qualified in the construction, installation, and operation of the equipment.
Table 1 summarizes the application and use of the three different types of tags and associated locks covered in this program.
Table 1: Lock Usage
To develop an equipment specific lockout/tagout procedure, a detailed equipment hazard analysis must be completed to identify all hazardous energy sources in the equipment. This involves reading the equipment prints, technical manuals, and a visual inspection of the equipment itself to identify any hazards that might not be readily identified from any other source. An example of this would be a disconnect switch that is mounted in a manner that it cannot be reached easily or without additional equipment.
Use the form in Equipment Specific Risk Assessment Worksheet for each affected piece of equipment at the distribution center.
Create the equipment-specific lockout procedure by filling in the necessary areas of the template in Equipment Specific Lockout/Tagout Template.
To fill out the equipment specific lockout/tagout procedure, insert the name and tag number of the equipment as requested in the title line and statement of purpose section. Not all sections will apply to all equipment; if a section is found that does not apply, it is acceptable to fill the section in with "Does Not Apply," "Not Applicable," or "N/A."
In the Electrical Hazards sections, list all magnitudes of electrical energy feeding the equipment and the control device for each. If the control device is not easily identified, be as descriptive as possible when describing the location of the control device.
In the Mechanical Hazard section, list all types of mechanical energy including gravity and all means to control/release the energy such as a valve or a block.
Affected personnel will vary according to shift, time during shift, and current production schedules. If possible, avoid listing individuals in this section unless necessary.
List the shutdown steps for the equipment, even if is as simple as going to an operator control station and pressing the stop button. Any manufacturer or local shutdown procedures used for this equipment should be listed here.
Be as descriptive as possible when describing the location and placement of the lockout devices. Use any installed labels, identifying signs, etc. Do this for both electrical and mechanical sections.
In the control/release of stored energy, list the type and magnitude, if available and the method used to release any stored energy, if applicable.
Verification of the lockout/tagout is an attempt to operate the equipment and verify the effectiveness of the lockout/tagout. This should not be confused with the testing required for a zero energy state. This test operate applies to both electrical and mechanical.
Release from lockout tagout should include any normal start up procedure used to turn on the equipment.
Assign a number to the lockout/tagout procedure in accordance with Equipment Specific Lockout/Tagout Numbering Protocol.
Lockout/tagout for (insert equipment noun name, tag number/identifying tag number, etc), procedure number (insert number).
This procedure is used to place the (insert equipment name/tag number) in a locked out/tagged out condition for maintenance. Electrical and/or mechanical lockout/tagout can be accomplished using the procedure. Failure to follow this procedure could lead to disciplinary action.
List ALL electrical hazard(s) by magnitude and the control device for that hazard.
List ALL mechanical hazard(s) by type, magnitude (if possible), and the control device/method to control/release the hazard.
Each lockout/tagout will have a unique identifier assigned that provides document, site, system, and skill level for the procedure. For example, LT-J-CRM0001A would indicate a lockout/tagout document, applicable for Jupiter, ASRS system, and a skill level of Mechanical, revision A. Use the following information to assign numbers to the lockout/tagout procedures.
The first two (2) characters are the document type.
The 3rd character is the DC.
The fourth and fifth characters are the system type.
The last character indicates the revision number and starts with A and continues through Z.
When signed, this coversheet, along with an original copy, must be filed for future reference.
NOTE: Use this form if work on equipment is complete, but red 'DO NOT OPERATE tags and locks remain on the equipment, and the person who has placed them has left the site and is unable to remove them.
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